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LEVITACIJA I MITOVI O NJOJ

Petar Bosnić Petrus

LEVITACIJA I MITOVI O NJOJ

Najutjecajnije članke o levitaciji koji danas postoje i koji su dostupni možete naći u en Wikipediji i Enciklopediji britanici. Osnova na kojoj su napisani je potpuno nerazumjevanje i nepoznavanje levitacije. Svi drugi “ozbiljni” članci slijede primjer en Wikipedije i Britanike, tih stupova ljudske kulture. A o onima “neozbiljnima” da i te govorimo. Ti se članci, nažalost, ne razlikuju bitno od priča o zmajevima, princezama, vilama, vješticama i drugim bajkovitim bićima, a dokazuju se raznim izmišljotinama koje već stoljećima kruže u ljudskoj kulturi.

Mađionićari, varalice i hohštapleri “koji levitiraju ili poznaju tajnu levitacije” ne izjednačuju se sa istinski darovitim, kreativnim osobama, nego im se čak daje velika prednost i počast. Njihova se riječ čuje i štuje.

Ako bi se sudilo po tim člancima, u Britanici i en Wikipediji, znanost fizike i ljudska kultura uopće vratila se u srednji vijek, u sedmo ili osmo stolječe. Jasno da je to, kod razumnih ljudi, fenomen levitacije iznijelo na vrlo zao glas.

Ali, otkud to?

Ko zna, možda suvremene generacije imaju potrebu da se malo odmore, od vladavine razuma, i to tako da se predaju ludosti i žive u ugodnim maštarijama, iluzijama ludorijama i obmanama. To je nešto kao potreba za iracionalnim ili za umjetnošću, ali, za razliku od iracionalnog uvida u istinu i umjetnosti, to civilizaciji i ljudima ne donosi saturaciju, niti korist, nego opasni regres.

Nasuprot toj srednjevjekovnoj maniri, ovaj moj članak (mislim na onaj dole što slijedi) temelji se na racionalnom stavu, stvarnom razumijevanju i iscrpnom, detaljnom poznavanju fenomena levitacije. Razlika u razumijevanju levitacije, između mene i mojih prethodnika slična je razlici između Newtona i njegovih prethodnika u razumijevanju težine i gravitacije. Nebo i zemlja.

Stoga, neka vas ne iznenadi tvrdnja koju ću kasnije iznijeti, a koju sam iznio već odavno u cijelom nizu radova – tvrdnja da je levitacija osnovno, ili prirodno, tj. bazično stanje svekolike materije, i da je stoga smiješna, luda i nenormalna ona, stoljećima, a i dan danas, prakticirana potraga za barem jednim nedvojbenim slučajem levitacije. To je slično onom čovjeku koji posvuda traži naočale koje su mu na nosu.

Poput prirodnog svemira, zrela, potpuno razvijena ljudska materijalna civilizacija lebdjeti će u atmosferi, i to će biti najprirodniji način čovjekovog življenja, prije nego krene u istraživanje i osvajanje galaktike. Ustvari to je oduvijek bio najprirodniji tj. točnije čovjekovoj prirodi najprimjereniji način življenja,  ali su se tek u našem vremenu stekle mogućnosti da se on i ostvari.

Nije to nimalo bez veze ni slučajno što su davni ljudi vjerovali da bogovi stoluju na nebu. To je zapravo bila – kako je to lijepo rekao jedan pisac – neka vrsta njihovog sjećanja na vlastitu budućnost. Što se toga tiče, čini se da je i mislilac Heraklit Efežanin zaista bio u pravu. Prostori i granice duha, ako ih uopće, ima, su puno dalje, dublje i drugačije nego se to nama danas čini.

No, bez obzira na fleksibilnost ljudskog duha, njegovu veliku moć i žeđ za znanjem, mislim da će biti potrebna stoljeća da se čovjek privikne na ovakvo shvaćanje levitacije, a i života kakvog ja zastupam i pokušavam afirmirati, kao što su, uostalom, bila potrebna stoljeća i za privikavanje ljudi na Newtonove ili Kopernikove tvrdnje.

Bio bih vam zahvalan kad bi ste to šerali svojim prijateljima. Pored toga, tim šeranjem dali bi ste značajan doprinos širenju istinske znanosti, a i svom ugledu. Od življenja, naime, u ugodnim, ali budalastim zabludama nećete steći ni povećati svoj ugled, a niti osmisliti svoj život.

Domaće wikipedije prepisuju moj članak o levitaciji, ali, suprotno svojim pravilima, stavljanjem krive poveznice, taje izvor, odnosno autorstvo članka.  ???

Vaš Petrus

Evo vam referentnih članaka:

https://petarbosnicpetrus.wordpress.com/2014/06/09/levitacija/

https://petarbosnicpetrus.wordpress.com/2017/04/24/gravifugalna-letjelica-2/

 

GRAVIFUGAL SPACE SHIP

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Petar Bosnić Petrus

GRAVIFUGAL SPACE SHIP

Unfortunately the translation of this article from Croatian to English is not so good, but things I am talking about are very simple – Newtonian simplicity –  because of it I believe you will easy understand this matter.

(Does somebody can make good translation in English, Chinese or Russian?)

Original text in Croatian language is here:

 https://petarbosnicpetrus.wordpress.com/2017/03/10/gravifugalna-letjelica/

Abstract

This work, among the other things, shows that the circle have no only single (only one) geometric center, as is commonly thought, but an infinite number of them :C1 C2 C3 C4…. and they are all situated in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the circle or the plane of rotation, passing through point of center C0. See Figure 1

Some of them, which are the geometric points of centers, are also physical points, or centers because they are points of application of centripetal force. E.g. center C0 .  See Figure 1. 

Furthermore, this work shows and emphasizes that physical center of the circle or rotating ring may be situated outside of the plane of rotation. An example is the rotation of ring near the surface of the celestial body. See Figure 2

Figure 2

At such rotation, between the infinite number of geometrical centers, there are two physical centers. One, or the first, C0 is in the plane of rotation of the ring. It is the source (point of application) of the “ordinary” centripetal force. The other, C1  is situated in the center of the celestial body and is (point of application) of the gravipetal force – gravity, which performs or functions as a centripetal force.

In addition to common known centrifugal force, Fcf the result or consequence of ring rotation also is gravifugal force, Fgf , Figure 2. It is Newtonian reaction to the action of gravipetal force. Gravipetal force, as I just said,  is in fact gravity functioning as centripetal force. Gravifugal force has the same course of action as gravipetal, but an opposite direction (Newton 3). This, gravifugal force, Fgf enables the ring to lift along the axis of its rotation and levitate.

In the case of rotation of ring arround the vertical axis, the current scientifical opinion overlooked the physical reality of extraplanar center of the ring C1. Because of it.also was overlooked the reality of the the gravifugal force, Fgf  and possibiliy of lifting the ring along the axis of its rotation and endeed possibility of its levitation. That oppinion believed that force in direction of gravifugal force, Fgf  is  just a derivative,  of  centrifugal force vector, Fcf × Cos. 900 , which allways equals zero. 

Additional facts which enables the ring  o lift itself along the axis of its rotation and  enables it to levitate , we will show below.

Technological and practical purpose of this paper

The paper shows that it is possible to build a vessel, spaceship or flying craft which is able to neutralize gravity by gravifugal force.

One of the main functions of the gravifugal flying craft is to be a means of transport in atmospheric and space transportation (traffic).

Unlike missiles which can be used only once, gravifugal flying craft can be used hundreds, thousands or millions of times. Working life of gravifugal flying craft should be much longer than the lifetime of the most solid car, practically unlimited. A transport cost using it would be incomparable cheaper, negligible.

Going into space and return to Earth, using the gravifugal flying craft, would be risky, dangerous and complicated as much as getting up from the chair on which we sit and sitting back on it.

The greatest distance on the Earth, 20,000 km (half of the equator), gravifugal flying craft would overcome in less than 50 minutes, with fuel consumption that would be well below 1% of the energy costs of modern aircraft, which “dive” through the atmosphere and almost all the fuel consume to overcome air resistance. Gravifugal flying craft also can fly and levitate also in vacuum.

For raising, (elevation) this flying craft, will use electric energy from its battery. The energy would be spent to accelerate one broad ring which creates gravifugal force. To might go back the craft and to the land, or to land it on some another celestial body, should be necessary to slow down the ring. It would be slowed by transforming its kinetic energy into electricity and returned it to the electrical batteries. Thus, the power consumption for this trip would be practically nil, zero.

It is not contrary to the law of conservation of energy, that can be seems at first glance, but the most necessary arising from it.

If this flying craft is constantly hovering at a certain height, there would not be carried out any work, (it is well known to the science of physics), so the energy consumption of its levitating  would be zero again, even if the levitating lasted one million years and if the weight of craft reached millions or billions of tons.

For this reason, the gravifugal flying craft would be suitable for building of levitating houses, towns, plantations and the whole islands – complete levitating civilization. It is maybe the most important way of using of this device.

This, leviating civilization will truly be mature, fully developed form of material civilization on Earth. There will not be built in  stone, concrete and steel, but only of carbons – carbon fiber, graphene and carbon nano-tubes. Life in it will be much healthier, safer, more comfortable and more beautiful, less expensive, but life on the Earth’s surface.

This is not a fantasy but a real and very close future It is based on the strictest application of the laws of classical physics,  primarily celestial mechanics.

If someone is interested in: how it is possible and how realistic such a civilization is, let them views:

https://petarbosnicpetrus.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/abc-of-levitation/?frame-nonce=bf1c039184

Gravifugal force

Gravifugal force is a manifestation of mass inertia in the case of rotation in which gravity acts as the centripetal force, the force that a body turns on a circular path around the center of gravity of celestial body.

In such cases, in which gravity acts as a centripetal force, gravity is not called simply: gravity, but gravipetal force, Fgp. 

The mass of the orbiting body resists to the change of direction of movement,  and manifest’s itself as a force (gravifugal) force, Fgf , which acts in the same direction as the gravipetal, but in the opposite direction. (Newton 3).

important note

In the previous, the above mentioned article, I showed that gravifugal force is not refusing, (repulsing), but distracting or detracting force, which detracts orbiting  mass from the celestial body around which it orbits and therefore it can not bi called repulsive, but detractive (distractive) force. The fact that gravifugal force is detractive one, and not repulsive is a very great fortune for the man, very lucky circumstance, because the size of detractive force does not decrease with the square of the distance, with R2, from the center or the surface of a celestial body, as repulsion force, does, than rather linear, with R. Due to this their characteristics, gravifugal force is very economical – “for the square” more economical than hypothetical, i.e. the mythical antigravity.

Well, just so.

Let us return to the main topics.

If the speed of orbiting celestial body is enough large then the vector sum of gravifugal and gravipetal force equals to zero it comes in a state of real levitation, ie. permanent weightlessness state. For example, Spaceships and astronauts orbiting the Earth at a speed of cca 7,9 km/sec. (Ie. The first cosmic speed).

Earth is in a state of real levitation in regard to the Sun, because it is orbiting around Sun, at a speed of 30 km/sec. In this case vector sum gravipetal and gravifugal forces is also reduced to zero. The same happens with large celestial objects or formations, but also in smaller ones. The electron orbiting an atomic nucleus is in a state of real levitation in relation to it, because vector sum of electropetal and electrofugal forces, that occur here, also are reduced to zero.

Because the whole matter of the universe is in a state of rotation, at speed that balances all the centripetal and centrifugal forces, and reducing them to zero, the entire material universe levitates in itself. The actual levitation, i.e. permanent weightless state is basic or natural state of matter. If the speed of rotation would be the smaller, the universe would collapse into itself, and if it would be higher, it would blew like a too fast rotating disk.

Gravifugal force was discovered and established since Newton – Hygens times. They gave a formula for its calculation. Today it is the basis, “the alpha and omega”, of whole Astronautics.

It is the formula:

Fgf  = mv2/R

Size of gravipetal force Fgp  can be calculated from the equation:

Fgp  = GMm/R2 – mv2/R, whence it follows that the size of gravipetal acceleration, ggp

ggp = (GM – v2)/ R

important note

At the rotation of solid body which is based in strength, solidity or solidopetal force – which belong among pseudoforces, centripetal and centrifugal acceleration increases by increasing speed. But at the rotation based in gravipetal force (bearing in the mind that gravity which belongs among fundamental forces, and acts as a centripetal force.), it is happening quite the opposite; – inverselly prfoportional – gravipetal and gravifugal acceleration decrease with the increased speed and at a speed of levitation or satelization fall to zero. By increassing velocity, it is not acceleration that increases than rarher radius R, or height of gravifugal flying craft.  Well, just so much in this note.

Let us to the main stream of our topics.

Speed, needed to achieve state of satelization or real levitation, continuous (permanent) weightlessness state, at a given radius, R is calculated from the equation:

GMm/R2 = mv2/R, from which follows that the speed of satelization, vs. or. the same: speed  levitation, vl

vl = √ GM/R

In the above equations G is the gravitational constant, M is the mass of a celestial body, m is the mass of small orbiting bodies. R is the distance of a small orbiting bodies or mass, m from the center of gravity of celestial body.

The lowest Earth’s orbit speed of levitation is slightly less than 8 km / sec. (7.9 km / sec.) And decreases with increasing height, ie. Radius R.

The basis of levitating houses and levitating civilization will be gravifugal force, but it will be obtained in a specific way – by rotation of a large fast ring in which one physical center of rotation lies in the plane of rotation of ring and the other far beyond, i.e. “Below” the plane of rotation, at the center of gravity of a celestial body. (See figure 2) This will be discussed further down, in the main part of this article. Gravifugal force that is creating by this ring will carry the construction of the aircraft and its cargo, which will not rotate.

In the brain of the reasonable reader, by itself, should arise the question: If the equation to calculate the size gravifugal forces and the manner of its reaching was known for centuries, why  we use such a dangerous, expensive and uneconomic missiles?

Why we have not built a gravifugal flying craft  ????

There are a number of reasons.

As the first, but not the most important fact was lack of materials of enough strentgh. Enough strenght materials to produce a key element of this aircraft – ring capable to avoid simple gyroscopical phenomena and to create enough large gravifugal  force was discovered and created recently. Those are nano-tubes and graphene. Only if the ring is made in these materials, can achieve high speeds that are generating enough large gravifugal force. Those are linear velocities of the ring mass larger than 8 km / sec. The angular velocity of rotation of the ring  have not any importance.

High-strengtht materials (solidity), are needed because the “ordinary centrifugal force”, Fcf  – which I call also solidofugal, force actioning in the plane of rotation of the ring and attempts to terminate it –  is very large. The largest is in the level of Earth’s surface. There is about 6,367,000 times greater than gravifugal. To overcome this force and prevent the breaking of the ring, now it is possible only if the ring is made in graphene and nano-tubes. Fortunately, the size ratio of the centrifugal or solidofugal force vs gravifugal decreases with increasing altitude (height) of gravifugal flying craft.

Another reason is of crucial importance. It is the lack or neglect certain, scientific knowledge relating to the rotation into gravitational field.

Here’s what it’s about. At the first several known things.

Centrifugal forces (which are a manifestation of mass inertia) are arising in cases in which a mass is moving  in circular trajectory around a given point (the center), which is the point of application of centripetal forces, which attracts the mass of the rotating body, and turns it on a circular path. Centrifugal force, whether it be: solidofugal, gravifugal, elektrofugal or some another, are always Newtonian reaction of the mass to effect of some centripetal force and always have the same course of action as centripetal, but the opposite direction. See Figure 1.

 Fcf is symbol of centrifugal force (solidofugal).

But before we jump into presentation, we define a circle and sphere

Circle is a geometric figure in which all its points are at equidistant from the given point, the center, eg., center C0.. See Figure 1 and Figure 2 .

Sphere – geometric body at which every point of its surface is at equidistant from its center. See Figure 2 .

Figure 1 shows essentially important, but “unknown” thing:

that every circle has not only one, but an infinite number of geometric centers C0, C1, C2, C3…… etc., and that all these centers are situated on a line that is perpendicular to the plane of the circle and is passing through the point of center C0. From any point on the circle (e.g., from point A) to the axis of rotation, can be pulled infinitely many different sizes of radius: r0, r 1, r2, r3 , etc. ….

If it is a rotation of solid discoid body, shallow cylinder, or a ring (See Figure 1), therefore, from all of the infinite numbers of centers, privileged and important is only center C0., because it is source, ie. the origin or point of application centripetal, or solidofugal  force, Fcf . Centre C0,. therefore, it is not only geometrical, but also a physical center. Of all the possible radius, only radius r0 is perpendicular to the axis of rotation and, therefore, is the shortest route, along which is acting radiusvektor of centripetal and centrifugal : Fcp and Fcf   or solidopetal and solidofugal force as also I call it – symbols: Fsp and Fsf  .

But let’s move on.

At the rotation of the solid body , in the gravitational field, (figure 2), e.g. rotation of a ring in vicinity of celestial body, previous scientists overlooked that the path of this ring mass – if the axis of rotation is coaxial with the direction of action of gravity and passes through the center of gravity of the celestial body, C1 (Figure 2) – that is, therefore, that the path of ring mass is always and necessarily also curved towards center of the celestial body, C1, or point of application of gravity, ie. gravipetal force (gravity acting as a centripetal force), and that, when it rotates, in addition of  those known centrifugal i.e. solidofugal force, Fcf , the most necessary is developing also “unknown” gravifugal force, Fgf  See Figure 2.

Figure 2

In the case shown in Figure 2, which shows a circle, or a rotating ring  in vicinity of large celestial body, also shows that the circle or rotating ring has infinitely many centers,  C0, C1, C2, C3…… and an infinite number of radius, r0, r1, r2, r3,….. but privileged, real or physical centers are only C0 and C1.  and, among the radiuses:  r0, and r1.

Center C0 is privileged because the point of application of centripetal or solidopetal force that trajectory ring mass turns to the point of center C0.  Center C1 is privileged because it is the source or point of application of gravipetal force Fgp, which is acting along the radiusvector r1 and that the trajectory of the ring mass turns to the point of center, C1 and from whose action occurs reactive (centrifugal i.e. more precize, gravifugal force, Fgf.  If the center C1 would not be point of application of gravipetal force, it, in no way may be able to cause gravipetal and gravifugal force and would be only one of an infinite number of unimportant geometric centers outside the plane of rotation of the ring, plate or disc.

important note

This phenomenon – the rotation of a ring at the surface or in the vicinity of a celestial body – should not be understood as planimetric, but as stereometric phenomenon. With such rotation – rotation in the gravitational field – a ring, in addition to an infinite number of geometric centers, has – as we have said – also two physical center  Cand C1. one of which, C0 is the physical center in the plane of rotation of the ring, and the other, C1 is out, or far beyond the plane of rotation of the ring, in the center of the sphere of celestial body. So much for this phenomenon.

We return to the mainstream of exposure.

The realization of this fact and the consciousness it is crucial for the development of future technologies of transport and development of material civilization in general, because it will  be based on it. Mature form of development of material civilization will be the aforementioned levitating civilization.

In addition to the curvature toward to the axis of ring’s rotation i.e point C0 which we can see immediately,  and in addition of explanation by which we can see that  the trajectory of the mass of the rotating body or some kind of ring, in the case of Figure 2, is also most necessary curved toward the center of the celestial bodie i.e. point C1.,  we can offer still one explanation.

Curvature toward center C1 can be understood from the following:

Let us suppose that on the surface of some quite large correct, smooth sphere we draw a small circle. Let’s say that this small circle is image of the every point of the path of the ring mass. The curvature of the small circle toward its own, coplanar center C0 we will see immediately. But curvature of the same small circle toward the center of the sphere, C1, her “spherical bulge and” general “spherical excess,” we will not be able to see it. But if we think logically, we will realize that this curvature is something necessary because each point on a smooth surface of sphere is equidistant from its center, and that is impossible, on the surface of sphere, to draw a line that would not be curved toward its center. Radiusvektor of curvature towards the center of sphere C1 , even at the smallest circle that can be drawn on the Earth’s surface is completely equal to the radiusvector of curvature of the Earth’s equator. See Figure 3.

Figure 3

Figure 3, 1, sferical surface os celestial body; 2,  center of celestial body;  3. gravifugal force,; 4, movement along curved surface; 5, imaginary straght lines connecting center of celestial body with sphere of stationary stars, 6 sphere of stationary stars.

On the surface of sphere it is impossible to draw a line which is not curved toward the center of the sphere. Gravifugal force, 3, does not arise from that curvature itself, but only from movement of some mass, along the curved (spherical) surface, 4, intersects the imaginary straight line, 5, connecting the center of the celestial bodies and points of the sphere of fixed stars, “orbis coelestis” or “absolute space”, 6. Such movement is real, absolute movement, and if it is allways at equidistant from a center of celestial body, 2, i.e. if it is curved toward it, necessarily causes gravifugal force, 3

Stil one explanation. See Figure 4. The ring which rotates in vicinity of the Earth’s surface, and whose axis of rotation is coaxial with the direction of gravity action, at the same time, has two essential curvature of its mass:  one perpendiculary toward to its axis of rotation (center C0), and other towards the center of gravity of Earth ( C1). Imagination can not create such vision, but the mind must be able to clearly comprehend this phenomena.

Figure 4 is used for the illustration of these things.

Figure 4 At the ring rotating in vicinity of the Earth’s surface, it seems that the trajectory of its own mass is tangential in relation to surface of celestial body and in relation to its center of gravity. But it is just our illusion. Each point on the ring,  in every moment , and every bit of its mass,  is always at the same distance,  from the center of the Earth, which means that it is curved toward center of Eart. Rotating particle of the ring mass describes the mantle of a cone, which top is in the center of the Earth (C1) and the base circle of the ring itself. Only when we develop the mantle of this cone, we can clearly see that the trajectory of the mass of the ring is not flat nor tangential, in regard to celestial body, than rather circular, ie, curved towards the top (center of the Earth (C1).

Radius of curvature of the mass of the ring toward its axis of rotation or center C0  is very small, but its curvature is very large and easy to see. By contrast, radius of curvature toward the center of the Earth (C1)  is very large (approximately 6,367,657meters), the curvature is very small, almost imperceptible.

Because of action of  forces from the points C0 and C1 i. e.  because of solidopetal and gravipetal forces, ring mass reacts (Newton 3) by the centrifugal (solidofugal), Fsf  and “unknown” gravifugal force Fgf

Size of the first calculated by the equation:

Fcf or Fsf = mv2/r,

Equation to calculate gravifugal force, Fgf :

Fgf  =  mv2 /R

“Ordinary centrifugal force”, Fcf  or Solidopetal, Fsf has no any influens to the direction and value of gravifugal force, Fgf Fcf

Radius of the ring, r can be amount to a few meters or a few tens of meters, also can be even less than one meter. In contrast, the minimum length of the radius of the Earth, R at the Earth’s surface is approximately 6,360,000 meters and therefore useful gravifugal force, Fgf  is 6.36 million times smaller than the common known centrifugal or solidofugal force, Fsf

Another thing. We all know that the Earth rotates arround its axis, so it is necessary that produces or creates gravifugal force. It has been detected long time ago and precisely measured by gravimeters at all geographical latitudes from 00 do 90geo. lat., but due to the already described overlook it was considered as a derivative of geocentrifugal or more precisely: geoaxifugal forces arising from the rotation of the Earth.

So much on solidofugal and gravifugal force.

We continue with a few words about gravifugal flying craft.

Already at the end of the last century it was possible to develop the craft of nano-tubes. The maximum theoretically possible speed of the ring made of existing tubes or nano-graphene is 8.75 km/sec.2. This speed enables vertical acceleration ring of about 2 m/sec.2 . If the housing ring and construction craft were also made of nano-tubes or graphene would be able to bear the burden of about one fifth of the weight of the ring and raise the vertical acceleration of about 0.1 m/sec.2

For comparison we point out that the largest rocket, the SATURN V at the start weight of three thousand and five hundred tons and can carry into orbit a weight of 200 tons. The ring of the three thousand tons, could carry into orbit a load of about 600 tons. And not only that. You could take that burden into orbit several times in one day, or at least a thousand times a year, with expenditure of inconceivably small amounts of electricity. This stems from the law of conservation of energy and the fact that gravity is a conservative force, ie. that keeps the work expended in its mastering and it is able to return it to the device that spent , which is inherently conservative and who again keep it and is capable again use it for the next elevation of the flying craft or some other useful work.

Of course this is not some kind of perpetualmotion machine. It is rather ordinary, but very economical device.

The place here is a scheme gravifugal flying craft. This one has no mechanical nor ion ring as some other types of this kind of gravifugal flying craft, but the quantum – ring made by the clean, monochromatic light. Figure 5

Figure 5. 1, toroidal tube with a mirror smooth inner walls; 2, light, i.e., a quantum ring; 3, light sources; 4, transparent photoelectric elements; 5 device for creating an electric field; 6, spacecraft structure of nano-tubes; 7, passage which connects the different room units; 8 useful space; 9 electric batteries.

The gravifugal flying craft fitted with quantum ring functions in following way:  the electricity from the battery, 9 through the light source, 3 is converted into light, 2 and fills the toroidal tube spacecraft and moves simultaneously in clockwise and reverse. Since the wall of tube are smooth like mirror, the light must circulate indefinitely, without the possibility to disappear. When sufficient “amount” of light was inserted in the tube, the spacecraft begins to lift. It is lowered so as to reduce the light quantity in the tube, and this in turn performed so that the transparent photoelectric elements 4 penetrate into the tube body. Going through them, the light is again converted into  electricity and back to the battery, 9.

The possibility of using the light ring is based on Einstein’s discovery that light changes the direction of its movement when passing close to strong gravitational fields – that turns toward the center of the celestial body just like a mass. Here Einstein’s hypothesis measurements proved by lord Edington in 1919 when it was found that the Sun’s gravity actually bends the light beam.

Forr this matter is the same whether the light corpuscles, photon, a quantum of energy, wave or information. The important thing is that it responds to the gravitational field as well as the masses.

On some other, interesting aspects of this phenomenon on which were the words you read on:

https://petarbosnicpetrus.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/abc-of-levitation/?frame-nonce=59b5fee084

At the first step I recommend the test experiment with carbonfibre ring 30 – 40 cm in diameter – fig. 6 and average velocity of its mass cca 500m/sec.  I recommend the ring without firm axis, but only magnetic bearing (to avoid vigrations).  Propulsion: 3 phase electric power with changable freqency and asinhronous rotation magnetic field.  In accordance with equation.

agf = v2 /R , by average velocity of the ring mass of 500m/sec. it can achieve vertical, gravifugal acceleration, agf cca 0, 392 m/sec2

Fig. 6

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Figure 6. 1 is mass of the ring made by carbon fiber or nano-tubes; 2 are magnetes of permanent magnet bearing (ring or rotor); 3 magnetes of permanent magnet bearing of casing or stator; 4 aluminum mass of the ring; 5 electromagnetes made by high frequency electromagnetic core and coils – powered by 3-phase electric current;6 mass of the casing made by carbon-fiber or polyester mass.

Figure 6

Coils are powered by 3-phase electric current. They are mounted in such a way as to allow creation of a revolving magnetic field. By linking the coils into the electric circuit an opposing magnetic field is also induced in the aluminum ring mass. Due to the effect of the magnetic field the ring begins to turn in the same direction as the magnetic field of the casing. The velocity of the ring is dependent on the velocity of rotation of the casing magnetic field, while the rotation velocity of the magnetic field is dependent on the frequency of the electric power (alternating).

Formula to calculate maximal relative velocity (velocity in regard to motionless neighborhood of the ring) is as follow.

v =√D • 2F/ m

In this formula: v is velocity of ring mass, D is diameter of the ring; F is tensile strenght of the material in which the ring is made; m is mass of the ring.

If the ring is made in graphene, maximal velocity is  9774m/sec.

That velocity enables gravifugal acceleration of cca 15m/sec2

Minus gravitational acceleration, g of 9,81m/sec2

is cca 5m/secof gravifugal acceleration.

GRAVIFUGAL SPACE CRAFT

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Petar Bosnić Petrus

GRAVIFUGAL SPACE CRAFT

Unfortunately the translation of this article from Croatian to English is not so good, but things I am talking about are very simple – Newtonian simplicity –  because of it I believe you will easy understand this matter.

(Does somebody can make good translation in English, Chinese or Russian?)

Original text in Croatian language is here:

 https://petarbosnicpetrus.wordpress.com/2017/03/10/gravifugalna-letjelica/

Abstract

This work, among the other things, shows that the circle have no only single (only one) geometric center, as is commonly thought, but an infinite number of them :C1 C2 C3 C4…. and they are all situated in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the circle or the plane of rotation, passing through point of center C0. See Figure 1

Some of them, which are the geometric points of centers, are also physical points, or centers because they are points of application of centripetal force. E.g. center C0 .  See Figure 1. 

Furthermore, this work shows and emphasizes that physical center of the circle or rotating ring may be situated outside of the plane of rotation. An example is the rotation of ring near the surface of the celestial body. See Figure 2

Figure 2

At such rotation, between the infinite number of geometrical centers, there are two physical centers. One, or the first, C0 is in the plane of rotation of the ring. It is the source (point of application) of the “ordinary” centripetal force. The other, C1  is situated in the center of the celestial body and is (point of application) of the gravipetal force – gravity, which performs or functions as a centripetal force.

In addition to common known centrifugal force, Fcf the result or consequence of ring rotation also is gravifugal force, Fgf , Figure 2. It is Newtonian reaction to the action of gravipetal force. Gravipetal force, as I just said,  is in fact gravity functioning as centripetal force. Gravifugal force has the same course of action as gravipetal, but an opposite direction (Newton 3). This, gravifugal force, Fgf enables the ring to lift along the axis of its rotation and levitate.

In the case of rotation of ring arround the vertical axis, the current scientifical opinion overlooked the physical reality of extraplanar center of the ring C1. Because of it.also was overlooked the reality of the the gravifugal force, Fgf  and possibiliy of lifting the ring along the axis of its rotation and endeed possibility of its levitation. That oppinion believed that force in direction of gravifugal force, Fgf  is  just a derivative,  of  centrifugal force vector, Fcf × Cos. 900 , which allways equals zero. 

Additional facts which enables the ring  o lift itself along the axis of its rotation and  enables it to levitate , we will show below.

Technological and practical purpose of this paper

The paper shows that it is possible to build a vessel, spaceship or flying craft which is able to neutralize gravity by gravifugal force.

One of the main functions of the gravifugal flying craft is to be a means of transport in atmospheric and space transportation (traffic).

Unlike missiles which can be used only once, gravifugal flying craft can be used hundreds, thousands or millions of times. Working life of gravifugal flying craft should be much longer than the lifetime of the most solid car, practically unlimited. A transport cost using it would be incomparable cheaper, negligible.

Going into space and return to Earth, using the gravifugal flying craft, would be risky, dangerous and complicated as much as getting up from the chair on which we sit and sitting back on it.

The greatest distance on the Earth, 20,000 km (half of the equator), gravifugal flying craft would overcome in less than 50 minutes, with fuel consumption that would be well below 1% of the energy costs of modern aircraft, which “dive” through the atmosphere and almost all the fuel consume to overcome air resistance. Gravifugal flying craft also can fly and levitate also in vacuum.

For raising, (elevation) this flying craft, will use electric energy from its battery. The energy would be spent to accelerate one broad ring which creates gravifugal force. To might go back the craft and to the land, or to land it on some another celestial body, should be necessary to slow down the ring. It would be slowed by transforming its kinetic energy into electricity and returned it to the electrical batteries. Thus, the power consumption for this trip would be practically nil, zero.

It is not contrary to the law of conservation of energy, that can be seems at first glance, but the most necessary arising from it.

If this flying craft is constantly hovering at a certain height, there would not be carried out any work, (it is well known to the science of physics), so the energy consumption of its levitating  would be zero again, even if the levitating lasted one million years and if the weight of craft reached millions or billions of tons.

For this reason, the gravifugal flying craft would be suitable for building of levitating houses, towns, plantations and the whole islands – complete levitating civilization. It is maybe the most important way of using of this device.

This, leviating civilization will truly be mature, fully developed form of material civilization on Earth. There will not be built in  stone, concrete and steel, but only of carbons – carbon fiber, graphene and carbon nano-tubes. Life in it will be much healthier, safer, more comfortable and more beautiful, less expensive, but life on the Earth’s surface.

This is not a fantasy but a real and very close future It is based on the strictest application of the laws of classical physics,  primarily celestial mechanics.

If someone is interested in: how it is possible and how realistic such a civilization is, let them views:

https://petarbosnicpetrus.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/abc-of-levitation/?frame-nonce=bf1c039184

Gravifugal force

Gravifugal force is a manifestation of mass inertia in the case of rotation in which gravity acts as the centripetal force, the force that a body turns on a circular path around the center of gravity of celestial body.

In such cases, in which gravity acts as a centripetal force, gravity is not called simply: gravity, but gravipetal force, Fgp. 

The mass of the orbiting body resists to the change of direction of movement,  and manifest’s itself as a force (gravifugal) force, Fgf , which acts in the same direction as the gravipetal, but in the opposite direction. (Newton 3).

important note

In the previous, the above mentioned article, I showed that gravifugal force is not refusing, (repulsing), but distracting or detracting force, which detracts orbiting  mass from the celestial body around which it orbits and therefore it can not bi called repulsive, but detractive (distractive) force. The fact that gravifugal force is detractive one, and not repulsive is a very great fortune for the man, very lucky circumstance, because the size of detractive force does not decrease with the square of the distance, with R2, from the center or the surface of a celestial body, as repulsion force, does, than rather linear, with R. Due to this their characteristics, gravifugal force is very economical – “for the square” more economical than hypothetical, i.e. the mythical antigravity.

Well, just so.

Let us return to the main topics.

If the speed of orbiting celestial body is enough large then the vector sum of gravifugal and gravipetal force equals to zero it comes in a state of real levitation, ie. permanent weightlessness state. For example, Spaceships and astronauts orbiting the Earth at a speed of cca 7,9 km/sec. (Ie. The first cosmic speed).

Earth is in a state of real levitation in regard to the Sun, because it is orbiting around Sun, at a speed of 30 km/sec. In this case vector sum gravipetal and gravifugal forces is also reduced to zero. The same happens with large celestial objects or formations, but also in smaller ones. The electron orbiting an atomic nucleus is in a state of real levitation in relation to it, because vector sum of electropetal and electrofugal forces, that occur here, also are reduced to zero.

Because the whole matter of the universe is in a state of rotation, at speed that balances all the centripetal and centrifugal forces, and reducing them to zero, the entire material universe levitates in itself. The actual levitation, i.e. permanent weightless state is basic or natural state of matter. If the speed of rotation would be the smaller, the universe would collapse into itself, and if it would be higher, it would blew like a too fast rotating disk.

Gravifugal force was discovered and established since Newton – Hygens times. They gave a formula for its calculation. Today it is the basis, “the alpha and omega”, of whole Astronautics.

It is the formula:

Fgf  = mv2/R

Size of gravipetal force Fgp  can be calculated from the equation:

Fgp  = GMm/R2 – mv2/R, whence it follows that the size of gravipetal acceleration, ggp

ggp = (GM – v2)/ R

important note

At the rotation of solid body which is based in strength, solidity or solidopetal force – which belong among pseudoforces, centripetal and centrifugal acceleration increases by increasing speed. But at the rotation based in gravipetal force (bearing in the mind that gravity which belongs among fundamental forces, and acts as a centripetal force.), it is happening quite the opposite; – inverselly prfoportional – gravipetal and gravifugal acceleration decrease with the increased speed and at a speed of levitation or satelization fall to zero. By increassing velocity, it is not acceleration that increases than rarher radius R, or height of gravifugal flying craft.  Well, just so much in this note.

Let us to the main stream of our topics.

Speed, needed to achieve state of satelization or real levitation, continuous (permanent) weightlessness state, at a given radius, R is calculated from the equation:

GMm/R2 = mv2/R, from which follows that the speed of satelization, vs. or. the same: speed  levitation, vl

vl = √ GM/R

In the above equations G is the gravitational constant, M is the mass of a celestial body, m is the mass of small orbiting bodies. R is the distance of a small orbiting bodies or mass, m from the center of gravity of celestial body.

The lowest Earth’s orbit speed of levitation is slightly less than 8 km / sec. (7.9 km / sec.) And decreases with increasing height, ie. Radius R.

The basis of levitating houses and levitating civilization will be gravifugal force, but it will be obtained in a specific way – by rotation of a large fast ring in which one physical center of rotation lies in the plane of rotation of ring and the other far beyond, i.e. “Below” the plane of rotation, at the center of gravity of a celestial body. (See figure 2) This will be discussed further down, in the main part of this article. Gravifugal force that is creating by this ring will carry the construction of the aircraft and its cargo, which will not rotate.

In the brain of the reasonable reader, by itself, should arise the question: If the equation to calculate the size gravifugal forces and the manner of its reaching was known for centuries, why  we use such a dangerous, expensive and uneconomic missiles?

Why we have not built a gravifugal flying craft  ????

There are a number of reasons.

As the first, but not the most important fact was lack of materials of enough strentgh. Enough strenght materials to produce a key element of this aircraft – ring capable to avoid simple gyroscopical phenomena and to create enough large gravifugal  force was discovered and created recently. Those are nano-tubes and graphene. Only if the ring is made in these materials, can achieve high speeds that are generating enough large gravifugal force. Those are linear velocities of the ring mass larger than 8 km / sec. The angular velocity of rotation of the ring  have not any importance.

High-strengtht materials (solidity), are needed because the “ordinary centrifugal force”, Fcf  – which I call also solidofugal, force actioning in the plane of rotation of the ring and attempts to terminate it –  is very large. The largest is in the level of Earth’s surface. There is about 6,367,000 times greater than gravifugal. To overcome this force and prevent the breaking of the ring, now it is possible only if the ring is made in graphene and nano-tubes. Fortunately, the size ratio of the centrifugal or solidofugal force vs gravifugal decreases with increasing altitude (height) of gravifugal flying craft.

Another reason is of crucial importance. It is the lack or neglect certain, scientific knowledge relating to the rotation into gravitational field.

Here’s what it’s about. At the first several known things.

Centrifugal forces (which are a manifestation of mass inertia) are arising in cases in which a mass is moving  in circular trajectory around a given point (the center), which is the point of application of centripetal forces, which attracts the mass of the rotating body, and turns it on a circular path. Centrifugal force, whether it be: solidofugal, gravifugal, elektrofugal or some another, are always Newtonian reaction of the mass to effect of some centripetal force and always have the same course of action as centripetal, but the opposite direction. See Figure 1.

 Fcf is symbol of centrifugal force (solidofugal).

But before we jump into presentation, we define a circle and sphere

Circle is a geometric figure in which all its points are at equidistant from the given point, the center, eg., center C0.. See Figure 1 and Figure 2 .

Sphere – geometric body at which every point of its surface is at equidistant from its center. See Figure 2 .

Figure 1 shows essentially important, but “unknown” thing:

that every circle has not only one, but an infinite number of geometric centers C0, C1, C2, C3…… etc., and that all these centers are situated on a line that is perpendicular to the plane of the circle and is passing through the point of center C0. From any point on the circle (e.g., from point A) to the axis of rotation, can be pulled infinitely many different sizes of radius: r0, r 1, r2, r3 , etc. ….

If it is a rotation of solid discoid body, shallow cylinder, or a ring (See Figure 1), therefore, from all of the infinite numbers of centers, privileged and important is only center C0., because it is source, ie. the origin or point of application centripetal, or solidofugal  force, Fcf . Centre C0,. therefore, it is not only geometrical, but also a physical center. Of all the possible radius, only radius r0 is perpendicular to the axis of rotation and, therefore, is the shortest route, along which is acting radiusvektor of centripetal and centrifugal : Fcp and Fcf   or solidopetal and solidofugal force as also I call it – symbols: Fsp and Fsf  .

But let’s move on.

At the rotation of the solid body , in the gravitational field, (figure 2), e.g. rotation of a ring in vicinity of celestial body, previous scientists overlooked that the path of this ring mass – if the axis of rotation is coaxial with the direction of action of gravity and passes through the center of gravity of the celestial body, C1 (Figure 2) – that is, therefore, that the path of ring mass is always and necessarily also curved towards center of the celestial body, C1, or point of application of gravity, ie. gravipetal force (gravity acting as a centripetal force), and that, when it rotates, in addition of  those known centrifugal i.e. solidofugal force, Fcf , the most necessary is developing also “unknown” gravifugal force, Fgf  See Figure 2.

Figure 2

In the case shown in Figure 2, which shows a circle, or a rotating ring  in vicinity of large celestial body, also shows that the circle or rotating ring has infinitely many centers,  C0, C1, C2, C3…… and an infinite number of radius, r0, r1, r2, r3,….. but privileged, real or physical centers are only C0 and C1.  and, among the radiuses:  r0, and r1.

Center C0 is privileged because the point of application of centripetal or solidopetal force that trajectory ring mass turns to the point of center C0.  Center C1 is privileged because it is the source or point of application of gravipetal force Fgp, which is acting along the radiusvector r1 and that the trajectory of the ring mass turns to the point of center, C1 and from whose action occurs reactive (centrifugal i.e. more precize, gravifugal force, Fgf.  If the center C1 would not be point of application of gravipetal force, it, in no way may be able to cause gravipetal and gravifugal force and would be only one of an infinite number of unimportant geometric centers outside the plane of rotation of the ring, plate or disc.

important note

This phenomenon – the rotation of a ring at the surface or in the vicinity of a celestial body – should not be understood as planimetric, but as stereometric phenomenon. With such rotation – rotation in the gravitational field – a ring, in addition to an infinite number of geometric centers, has – as we have said – also two physical center  Cand C1. one of which, C0 is the physical center in the plane of rotation of the ring, and the other, C1 is out, or far beyond the plane of rotation of the ring, in the center of the sphere of celestial body. So much for this phenomenon.

We return to the mainstream of exposure.

The realization of this fact and the consciousness it is crucial for the development of future technologies of transport and development of material civilization in general, because it will  be based on it. Mature form of development of material civilization will be the aforementioned levitating civilization.

In addition to the curvature toward to the axis of ring’s rotation i.e point C0 which we can see immediately,  and in addition of explanation by which we can see that  the trajectory of the mass of the rotating body or some kind of ring, in the case of Figure 2, is also most necessary curved toward the center of the celestial bodie i.e. point C1.,  we can offer still one explanation.

Curvature toward center C1 can be understood from the following:

Let us suppose that on the surface of some quite large correct, smooth sphere we draw a small circle. Let’s say that this small circle is image of the every point of the path of the ring mass. The curvature of the small circle toward its own, coplanar center C0 we will see immediately. But curvature of the same small circle toward the center of the sphere, C1, her “spherical bulge and” general “spherical excess,” we will not be able to see it. But if we think logically, we will realize that this curvature is something necessary because each point on a smooth surface of sphere is equidistant from its center, and that is impossible, on the surface of sphere, to draw a line that would not be curved toward its center. Radiusvektor of curvature towards the center of sphere C1 , even at the smallest circle that can be drawn on the Earth’s surface is completely equal to the radiusvector of curvature of the Earth’s equator. See Figure 3.

Figure 3

Figure 3, 1, sferical surface os celestial body; 2,  center of celestial body;  3. gravifugal force,; 4, movement along curved surface; 5, imaginary straght lines connecting center of celestial body with sphere of stationary stars, 6 sphere of stationary stars.

On the surface of sphere it is impossible to draw a line which is not curved toward the center of the sphere. Gravifugal force, 3, does not arise from that curvature itself, but only from movement of some mass, along the curved (spherical) surface, 4, intersects the imaginary straight line, 5, connecting the center of the celestial bodies and points of the sphere of fixed stars, “orbis coelestis” or “absolute space”, 6. Such movement is real, absolute movement, and if it is allways at equidistant from a center of celestial body, 2, i.e. if it is curved toward it, necessarily causes gravifugal force, 3

Stil one explanation. See Figure 4. The ring which rotates in vicinity of the Earth’s surface, and whose axis of rotation is coaxial with the direction of gravity action, at the same time, has two essential curvature of its mass:  one perpendiculary toward to its axis of rotation (center C0), and other towards the center of gravity of Earth ( C1). Imagination can not create such vision, but the mind must be able to clearly comprehend this phenomena.

Figure 4 is used for the illustration of these things.

Figure 4 At the ring rotating in vicinity of the Earth’s surface, it seems that the trajectory of its own mass is tangential in relation to surface of celestial body and in relation to its center of gravity. But it is just our illusion. Each point on the ring,  in every moment , and every bit of its mass,  is always at the same distance,  from the center of the Earth, which means that it is curved toward center of Eart. Rotating particle of the ring mass describes the mantle of a cone, which top is in the center of the Earth (C1) and the base circle of the ring itself. Only when we develop the mantle of this cone, we can clearly see that the trajectory of the mass of the ring is not flat nor tangential, in regard to celestial body, than rather circular, ie, curved towards the top (center of the Earth (C1).

Radius of curvature of the mass of the ring toward its axis of rotation or center C0  is very small, but its curvature is very large and easy to see. By contrast, radius of curvature toward the center of the Earth (C1)  is very large (approximately 6,367,657meters), the curvature is very small, almost imperceptible.

Because of action of  forces from the points C0 and C1 i. e.  because of solidopetal and gravipetal forces, ring mass reacts (Newton 3) by the centrifugal (solidofugal), Fsf  and “unknown” gravifugal force Fgf

Size of the first calculated by the equation:

Fcf or Fsf = mv2/r,

Equation to calculate gravifugal force, Fgf :

Fgf  =  mv2 /R

“Ordinary centrifugal force”, Fcf  or Solidopetal, Fsf has no any influens to the direction and value of gravifugal force, Fgf Fcf

Radius of the ring, r can be amount to a few meters or a few tens of meters, also can be even less than one meter. In contrast, the minimum length of the radius of the Earth, R at the Earth’s surface is approximately 6,360,000 meters and therefore useful gravifugal force, Fgf  is 6.36 million times smaller than the common known centrifugal or solidofugal force, Fsf

Another thing. We all know that the Earth rotates arround its axis, so it is necessary that produces or creates gravifugal force. It has been detected long time ago and precisely measured by gravimeters at all geographical latitudes from 00 do 90geo. lat., but due to the already described overlook it was considered as a derivative of geocentrifugal or more precisely: geoaxifugal forces arising from the rotation of the Earth.

So much on solidofugal and gravifugal force.

We continue with a few words about gravifugal flying craft.

Already at the end of the last century it was possible to develop the craft of nano-tubes. The maximum theoretically possible speed of the ring made of existing tubes or nano-graphene is 8.75 km/sec.2. This speed enables vertical acceleration ring of about 2 m/sec.2 . If the housing ring and construction craft were also made of nano-tubes or graphene would be able to bear the burden of about one fifth of the weight of the ring and raise the vertical acceleration of about 0.1 m/sec.2

For comparison we point out that the largest rocket, the SATURN V at the start weight of three thousand and five hundred tons and can carry into orbit a weight of 200 tons. The ring of the three thousand tons, could carry into orbit a load of about 600 tons. And not only that. You could take that burden into orbit several times in one day, or at least a thousand times a year, with expenditure of inconceivably small amounts of electricity. This stems from the law of conservation of energy and the fact that gravity is a conservative force, ie. that keeps the work expended in its mastering and it is able to return it to the device that spent , which is inherently conservative and who again keep it and is capable again use it for the next elevation of the flying craft or some other useful work.

Of course this is not some kind of perpetualmotion machine. It is rather ordinary, but very economical device.

The place here is a scheme gravifugal flying craft. This one has no mechanical nor ion ring as some other types of this kind of gravifugal flying craft, but the quantum – ring made by the clean, monochromatic light. Figure 5

Figure 5. 1, toroidal tube with a mirror smooth inner walls; 2, light, i.e., a quantum ring; 3, light sources; 4, transparent photoelectric elements; 5 device for creating an electric field; 6, spacecraft structure of nano-tubes; 7, passage which connects the different room units; 8 useful space; 9 electric batteries.

The gravifugal flying craft fitted with quantum ring functions in following way:  the electricity from the battery, 9 through the light source, 3 is converted into light, 2 and fills the toroidal tube spacecraft and moves simultaneously in clockwise and reverse. Since the wall of tube are smooth like mirror, the light must circulate indefinitely, without the possibility to disappear. When sufficient “amount” of light was inserted in the tube, the spacecraft begins to lift. It is lowered so as to reduce the light quantity in the tube, and this in turn performed so that the transparent photoelectric elements 4 penetrate into the tube body. Going through them, the light is again converted into  electricity and back to the battery, 9.

The possibility of using the light ring is based on Einstein’s discovery that light changes the direction of its movement when passing close to strong gravitational fields – that turns toward the center of the celestial body just like a mass. Here Einstein’s hypothesis measurements proved by lord Edington in 1919 when it was found that the Sun’s gravity actually bends the light beam.

Forr this matter is the same whether the light corpuscles, photon, a quantum of energy, wave or information. The important thing is that it responds to the gravitational field as well as the masses.

On some other, interesting aspects of this phenomenon on which were the words you read on:

https://petarbosnicpetrus.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/abc-of-levitation/?frame-nonce=59b5fee084

At the first step I recommend the test experiment with carbonfibre ring 30 – 40 cm in diameter – fig. 6 and average velocity of its mass cca 500m/sec.  I recommend the ring without firm axis, but only magnetic bearing (to avoid vigrations).  Propulsion: 3 phase electric power with changable freqency and asinhronous rotation magnetic field.  In accordance with equation.

agf = v2 /R , by average velocity of the ring mass of 500m/sec. it can achieve vertical, gravifugal acceleration, agf cca 0, 392 m/sec2

Fig. 6

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Figure 6. 1 is mass of the ring made by carbon fiber or nano-tubes; 2 are magnetes of permanent magnet bearing (ring or rotor); 3 magnetes of permanent magnet bearing of casing or stator; 4 aluminum mass of the ring; 5 electromagnetes made by high frequency electromagnetic core and coils – powered by 3-phase electric current;6 mass of the casing made by carbon-fiber or polyester mass.

Figure 6

Coils are powered by 3-phase electric current. They are mounted in such a way as to allow creation of a revolving magnetic field. By linking the coils into the electric circuit an opposing magnetic field is also induced in the aluminum ring mass. Due to the effect of the magnetic field the ring begins to turn in the same direction as the magnetic field of the casing. The velocity of the ring is dependent on the velocity of rotation of the casing magnetic field, while the rotation velocity of the magnetic field is dependent on the frequency of the electric power (alternating).

Formula to calculate maximal relative velocity (velocity in regard to motionless neighborhood of the ring) is as follow.

v =√D • 2F/ m

In this formula: v is velocity of ring mass, D is diameter of the ring; F is tensile strenght of the material in which the ring is made; m is mass of the ring.

If the ring is made in graphene, maximal velocity is  9774m/sec.

That velocity enables gravifugal acceleration of cca 15m/sec2

Minus gravitational acceleration, g of 9,81m/sec2

is cca 5m/secof gravifugal acceleration.

POVODOM DANA POBJEDE NAD FAŠIZMOM

POVODOM DANA POBJEDE NAD FAŠIZMOM.

Do sada se mislilo da je sloboda i suverenost nacije najviša društvena i civilizacijska vrijednost i da je ta sloboda vrijedna najvećih žrtava.

No vremena se mijenjaju.

Najveća vrijednost danas, ja tvrdim, jest sloboda i smisleni opstanak cijele ljudske vrste i upravo njen suverenitet, što, naravno podrazumijeva i slobodu nacija, jer su one samo jedan od oblika kroz koje se pojavljuje ljudska vrsta.

To znači da više ne bi smo smjeli živjeti u ovakvom divljaštvu u kojem ima sto nacija i sto različitih zakona, a reda, mira, prava, slobode i pravde ni od korova.

Pravedan zakon izrasta iz slobode, i on je pozitivni temelj slobode. Zakon svih zakona, princip opstanka ljudske vrste, odsada treba biti:

Jedna vrsta, jedan planet, jedan zakon, jedno mjerilo za sve!

Zemljom ne smije vladati red bez života, niti život bez reda.

Zato kažemo.

Mir neka vlada na grobljima, a na svijetu život!

A pod životom ovdje se misli na kreativni nemir koji, putem slobode i pravde ostvaruje one najvažnije i najveće ciljeve ljudske vrste.

Tu spada i sloboda od straha i mogućnosti nuklearnog rata, sloboda od ugnjetavanja jedne nacije od druge, jedne rase od druge, sloboda od siromaštva, pravo na život i opstanak i drugih živih vrsta, pored ljudske itd.

Takva je sloboda danas ono što je vrijedno najvećih napora i najvećih žrtava.

Drugi svjetski rat bio je rat protiv onih koji su htjeli spriječiti ozbiljenje takve slobode čovječanstva. Antifašisti su se borili za čovjekovu i čovječnu budućnost.

S obzirom na to u kakvoj se divljačkoj i anarhičkoj situaciji nalazi svijet, Treći svjetski rat morao bi se zbiti, ali ne bi se smio voditi fizičkim oružjima, nego mentalnim. To će biti rat za gore opisani svjetonazor koji će omogućiti ostvarenje onih ultimativnih ciljeva ljudske vrste.

Taj rat počeo je upravo sada i ovdje.

Započeo sam ga ja, a vi ga, pravednici i čovjekoljupci, branitelji ljudske budućnosti proširite i nastavite do pobjede.

Petar Bosnić Petrus

Hideo Hayasaka and Sakae Takeuchi

Explanation of achieved experimental results on a base of gravifugal force theory

Petar Bosnic Petrus

https://www.slideshare.net/ssuser5ee816/anomalous-weight-reduction-on-a-gyroscopes-right-rotations-around-the-vertical-axis-on-the-earth

Although forgotten, this is maybe one of the most important experiments in the last time.There was shown that gyroscope rotating arround vertical axis Decreases its weight. But without gravifugal force theory it was not possible to explane this decrease. See the Hayasaka – Takeuchi article above.

in USA, Colorado and GB, was carried out similar experiments, but without weight los. Results of Japanese experiment, in the lack of real explanation, was explained as a consequence of vibrations – system error.

Calculations on a base of gravifugal force theory gives the same results as the Japanese experiment. Calcualtions were based on average velocity of gyroscope’s mass. In Japanese experiment, decrease of weight was meassured in miligrams. However it were enormous large values, because mass of gyroscopes and its speed were very small. See the mentioned article.

However in Hayasaka – Takeuchi experiment were made several systems errors.

The most important:

The experiment was carried out in Japan which is situated under the 400 N geographical latitude. It is an error because Earth is rotating arround its axis and because of it the experiment have to achieve also unexpected results.

About the others experimental errors

1.Experiment had to be carried out at the poles, or, in vicinity of poles. There would be not posible gyroscopic precesion and zero result in counter clock vise rotation of gyroscope.

2.Average („absolute“) linear (peripheral) velocity of the mass of gyroscope have to be much larger. Not only 9,5m /sec. or 18m/sec. as it was, than rather several hundred meters per second. Such gyroscope have to be made in carbonfibre. Such ring can lose meximum 4% of its weight.

3.Larger „absolute“ velocity also prevent zero result in counter clock vise rotation of gyroscope.

4.Lose of whole weight and levitation of gyroscope (gravifugal levitation) is possible only on the base of 7,91km /sec.of „absolute velocity“ I am talking about „absolute“ average velocity of gyroscope mass. Gyroscope capable to achieve gravifugal levitation have to be made in nano-tubes or graphene. Because the destructive centrifugal force is 6,3 milion times greater than useful gravifugal force. Ring  made i graphene is able to achieve slightly greater peripheral velocity than 10 km /sec.., and is able to lift itself along the axis of its rotation.

5.Because of it „Gyroscope“ had to be made in a form of ring, with a magnetic bearings, and without firm axis, also to prevent any vibrations.

6.Angular velocity and influence of magnetic field has no any importance.

Important note:

In this kind of experiments it is important to measure only an „absolute velocity“. – It is velocity by which the points of mass of rotor cuts imaginary streight lines conecting the center of gravity of celestial body and points on the sphere of stationary stars.

See:

https://petarbosnicpetrus.wordpress.com/2017/04/21/1224/

See also

https://www.npl.washington.edu/av/altvw41.html

LEVITATING CIVILIZATION

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Petar Bosnić Petrus

GRAVIFUGAL FLYING CRAFT

Unfortunately the translation of this article from Croatian to English is not so good, but things I am talking about are very simple – Newtonian simplicity –  because of it I believe you will easy understand this matter.

(Does somebody can make good translation in English, Chinese or Russian?)

Original text in Croatian language is here:

 https://petarbosnicpetrus.wordpress.com/2017/03/10/gravifugalna-letjelica/

Abstract

This work, among the other things, shows that the circle have no only single (only one) geometric center, as is commonly thought, but an infinite number of them :C1 C2 C3 C4…. and they are all situated in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the circle or the plane of rotation, passing through point of center C0. See Figure 1

Some of them, which are the geometric points of centers, are also physical points, or centers because they are points of application of centripetal force. E.g. center C0 .  See Figure 1. 

Furthermore, this work shows and emphasizes that physical center of the circle or rotating ring may be situated outside of the plane of rotation. An example is the rotation of ring near the surface of the celestial body. See Figure 2

Figure 2

At such rotation, between the infinite number of geometrical centers, there are two physical centers. One, or the first, C0 is in the plane of rotation of the ring. It is the source (point of application) of the “ordinary” centripetal force. The other, C1  is situated in the center of the celestial body and is (point of application) of the gravipetal force – gravity, which performs or functions as a centripetal force.

In addition to common known centrifugal force, Fcf the result or consequence of ring rotation also is gravifugal force, Fgf , Figure 2. It is Newtonian reaction to the action of gravipetal force. Gravipetal force, as I just said,  is in fact gravity functioning as centripetal force. Gravifugal force has the same course of action as gravipetal, but an opposite direction (Newton 3). This, gravifugal force, Fgf enables the ring to lift along the axis of its rotation and levitate.

In the case of rotation of ring arround the vertical axis, the current scientifical opinion overlooked the physical reality of extraplanar center of the ring C1. Because of it.also was overlooked the reality of the the gravifugal force, Fgf  and possibiliy of lifting the ring along the axis of its rotation and endeed possibility of its levitation. That oppinion believed that force in direction of gravifugal force, Fgf  is  just a derivative,  of  centrifugal force vector, Fcf × Cos. 900 , which allways equals zero. 

Additional facts which enables the ring  o lift itself along the axis of its rotation and  enables it to levitate , we will show below.

Technological and practical purpose of this paper

The paper shows that it is possible to build a vessel, spaceship or flying craft which is able to neutralize gravity by gravifugal force.

One of the main functions of the gravifugal flying craft is to be a means of transport in atmospheric and space transportation (traffic).

Unlike missiles which can be used only once, gravifugal flying craft can be used hundreds, thousands or millions of times. Working life of gravifugal flying craft should be much longer than the lifetime of the most solid car, practically unlimited. A transport cost using it would be incomparable cheaper, negligible.

Going into space and return to Earth, using the gravifugal flying craft, would be risky, dangerous and complicated as much as getting up from the chair on which we sit and sitting back on it.

The greatest distance on the Earth, 20,000 km (half of the equator), gravifugal flying craft would overcome in less than 50 minutes, with fuel consumption that would be well below 1% of the energy costs of modern aircraft, which “dive” through the atmosphere and almost all the fuel consume to overcome air resistance. Gravifugal flying craft also can fly and levitate also in vacuum.

For raising, (elevation) this flying craft, will use electric energy from its battery. The energy would be spent to accelerate one broad ring which creates gravifugal force. To might go back the craft and to the land, or to land it on some another celestial body, should be necessary to slow down the ring. It would be slowed by transforming its kinetic energy into electricity and returned it to the electrical batteries. Thus, the power consumption for this trip would be practically nil, zero.

It is not contrary to the law of conservation of energy, that can be seems at first glance, but the most necessary arising from it.

If this flying craft is constantly hovering at a certain height, there would not be carried out any work, (it is well known to the science of physics), so the energy consumption of its levitating  would be zero again, even if the levitating lasted one million years and if the weight of craft reached millions or billions of tons.

For this reason, the gravifugal flying craft would be suitable for building of levitating houses, towns, plantations and the whole islands – complete levitating civilization. It is maybe the most important way of using of this device.

This, leviating civilization will truly be mature, fully developed form of material civilization on Earth. There will not be built in  stone, concrete and steel, but only of carbons – carbon fiber, graphene and carbon nano-tubes. Life in it will be much healthier, safer, more comfortable and more beautiful, less expensive, but life on the Earth’s surface.

This is not a fantasy but a real and very close future It is based on the strictest application of the laws of classical physics,  primarily celestial mechanics.

If someone is interested in: how it is possible and how realistic such a civilization is, let them views:

https://petarbosnicpetrus.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/abc-of-levitation/?frame-nonce=bf1c039184

Gravifugal force

Gravifugal force is a manifestation of mass inertia in the case of rotation in which gravity acts as the centripetal force, the force that a body turns on a circular path around the center of gravity of celestial body.

In such cases, in which gravity acts as a centripetal force, gravity is not called simply: gravity, but gravipetal force, Fgp. 

The mass of the orbiting body resists to the change of direction of movement,  and manifest’s itself as a force (gravifugal) force, Fgf , which acts in the same direction as the gravipetal, but in the opposite direction. (Newton 3).

important note

In the previous, the above mentioned article, I showed that gravifugal force is not refusing, (repulsing), but distracting or detracting force, which detracts orbiting  mass from the celestial body around which it orbits and therefore it can not bi called repulsive, but detractive (distractive) force. The fact that gravifugal force is detractive one, and not repulsive is a very great fortune for the man, very lucky circumstance, because the size of detractive force does not decrease with the square of the distance, with R2, from the center or the surface of a celestial body, as repulsion force, does, than rather linear, with R. Due to this their characteristics, gravifugal force is very economical – “for the square” more economical than hypothetical, i.e. the mythical antigravity.

Well, just so.

Let us return to the main topics.

If the speed of orbiting celestial body is enough large then the vector sum of gravifugal and gravipetal force equals to zero it comes in a state of real levitation, ie. permanent weightlessness state. For example, Spaceships and astronauts orbiting the Earth at a speed of cca 7,9 km/sec. (Ie. The first cosmic speed).

Earth is in a state of real levitation in regard to the Sun, because it is orbiting around Sun, at a speed of 30 km/sec. In this case vector sum gravipetal and gravifugal forces is also reduced to zero. The same happens with large celestial objects or formations, but also in smaller ones. The electron orbiting an atomic nucleus is in a state of real levitation in relation to it, because vector sum of electropetal and electrofugal forces, that occur here, also are reduced to zero.

Because the whole matter of the universe is in a state of rotation, at speed that balances all the centripetal and centrifugal forces, and reducing them to zero, the entire material universe levitates in itself. The actual levitation, i.e. permanent weightless state is basic or natural state of matter. If the speed of rotation would be the smaller, the universe would collapse into itself, and if it would be higher, it would blew like a too fast rotating disk.

Gravifugal force was discovered and established since Newton – Hygens times. They gave a formula for its calculation. Today it is the basis, “the alpha and omega”, of whole Astronautics.

It is the formula:

Fgf  = mv2/R

Size of gravipetal force Fgp  can be calculated from the equation:

Fgp  = GMm/R2 – mv2/R, whence it follows that the size of gravipetal acceleration, ggp

ggp = (GM – v2)/ R

important note

At the rotation of solid body which is based in strength, solidity or solidopetal force – which belong among pseudoforces, centripetal and centrifugal acceleration increases by increasing speed. But at the rotation based in gravipetal force (bearing in the mind that gravity which belongs among fundamental forces, and acts as a centripetal force.), it is happening quite the opposite; – inverselly prfoportional – gravipetal and gravifugal acceleration decrease with the increased speed and at a speed of levitation or satelization fall to zero. By increassing velocity, it is not acceleration that increases than rarher radius R, or height of gravifugal flying craft.  Well, just so much in this note.

Let us to the main stream of our topics.

Speed, needed to achieve state of satelization or real levitation, continuous (permanent) weightlessness state, at a given radius, R is calculated from the equation:

GMm/R2 = mv2/R, from which follows that the speed of satelization, vs. or. the same: speed  levitation, vl

vl = √ GM/R

In the above equations G is the gravitational constant, M is the mass of a celestial body, m is the mass of small orbiting bodies. R is the distance of a small orbiting bodies or mass, m from the center of gravity of celestial body.

The lowest Earth’s orbit speed of levitation is slightly less than 8 km / sec. (7.9 km / sec.) And decreases with increasing height, ie. Radius R.

The basis of levitating houses and levitating civilization will be gravifugal force, but it will be obtained in a specific way – by rotation of a large fast ring in which one physical center of rotation lies in the plane of rotation of ring and the other far beyond, i.e. “Below” the plane of rotation, at the center of gravity of a celestial body. (See figure 2) This will be discussed further down, in the main part of this article. Gravifugal force that is creating by this ring will carry the construction of the aircraft and its cargo, which will not rotate.

In the brain of the reasonable reader, by itself, should arise the question: If the equation to calculate the size gravifugal forces and the manner of its reaching was known for centuries, why  we use such a dangerous, expensive and uneconomic missiles?

Why we have not built a gravifugal flying craft  ????

There are a number of reasons.

As the first, but not the most important fact was lack of materials of enough strentgh. Enough strenght materials to produce a key element of this aircraft – ring capable to avoid simple gyroscopical phenomena and to create enough large gravifugal  force was discovered and created recently. Those are nano-tubes and graphene. Only if the ring is made in these materials, can achieve high speeds that are generating enough large gravifugal force. Those are linear velocities of the ring mass larger than 8 km / sec. The angular velocity of rotation of the ring  have not any importance.

High-strengtht materials (solidity), are needed because the “ordinary centrifugal force”, Fcf  – which I call also solidofugal, force actioning in the plane of rotation of the ring and attempts to terminate it –  is very large. The largest is in the level of Earth’s surface. There is about 6,367,000 times greater than gravifugal. To overcome this force and prevent the breaking of the ring, now it is possible only if the ring is made in graphene and nano-tubes. Fortunately, the size ratio of the centrifugal or solidofugal force vs gravifugal decreases with increasing altitude (height) of gravifugal flying craft.

Another reason is of crucial importance. It is the lack or neglect certain, scientific knowledge relating to the rotation into gravitational field.

Here’s what it’s about. At the first several known things.

Centrifugal forces (which are a manifestation of mass inertia) are arising in cases in which a mass is moving  in circular trajectory around a given point (the center), which is the point of application of centripetal forces, which attracts the mass of the rotating body, and turns it on a circular path. Centrifugal force, whether it be: solidofugal, gravifugal, elektrofugal or some another, are always Newtonian reaction of the mass to effect of some centripetal force and always have the same course of action as centripetal, but the opposite direction. See Figure 1.

 Fcf is symbol of centrifugal force (solidofugal).

But before we jump into presentation, we define a circle and sphere

Circle is a geometric figure in which all its points are at equidistant from the given point, the center, eg., center C0.. See Figure 1 and Figure 2 .

Sphere – geometric body at which every point of its surface is at equidistant from its center. See Figure 2 .

Figure 1 shows essentially important, but “unknown” thing:

that every circle has not only one, but an infinite number of geometric centers C0, C1, C2, C3…… etc., and that all these centers are situated on a line that is perpendicular to the plane of the circle and is passing through the point of center C0. From any point on the circle (e.g., from point A) to the axis of rotation, can be pulled infinitely many different sizes of radius: r0, r 1, r2, r3 , etc. ….

If it is a rotation of solid discoid body, shallow cylinder, or a ring (See Figure 1), therefore, from all of the infinite numbers of centers, privileged and important is only center C0., because it is source, ie. the origin or point of application centripetal, or solidofugal  force, Fcf . Centre C0,. therefore, it is not only geometrical, but also a physical center. Of all the possible radius, only radius r0 is perpendicular to the axis of rotation and, therefore, is the shortest route, along which is acting radiusvektor of centripetal and centrifugal : Fcp and Fcf   or solidopetal and solidofugal force as also I call it – symbols: Fsp and Fsf  .

But let’s move on.

At the rotation of the solid body , in the gravitational field, (figure 2), e.g. rotation of a ring in vicinity of celestial body, previous scientists overlooked that the path of this ring mass – if the axis of rotation is coaxial with the direction of action of gravity and passes through the center of gravity of the celestial body, C1 (Figure 2) – that is, therefore, that the path of ring mass is always and necessarily also curved towards center of the celestial body, C1, or point of application of gravity, ie. gravipetal force (gravity acting as a centripetal force), and that, when it rotates, in addition of  those known centrifugal i.e. solidofugal force, Fcf , the most necessary is developing also “unknown” gravifugal force, Fgf  See Figure 2.

Figure 2

In the case shown in Figure 2, which shows a circle, or a rotating ring  in vicinity of large celestial body, also shows that the circle or rotating ring has infinitely many centers,  C0, C1, C2, C3…… and an infinite number of radius, r0, r1, r2, r3,….. but privileged, real or physical centers are only C0 and C1.  and, among the radiuses:  r0, and r1.

Center C0 is privileged because the point of application of centripetal or solidopetal force that trajectory ring mass turns to the point of center C0.  Center C1 is privileged because it is the source or point of application of gravipetal force Fgp, which is acting along the radiusvector r1 and that the trajectory of the ring mass turns to the point of center, C1 and from whose action occurs reactive (centrifugal i.e. more precize, gravifugal force, Fgf.  If the center C1 would not be point of application of gravipetal force, it, in no way may be able to cause gravipetal and gravifugal force and would be only one of an infinite number of unimportant geometric centers outside the plane of rotation of the ring, plate or disc.

important note

This phenomenon – the rotation of a ring at the surface or in the vicinity of a celestial body – should not be understood as planimetric, but as stereometric phenomenon. With such rotation – rotation in the gravitational field – a ring, in addition to an infinite number of geometric centers, has – as we have said – also two physical center  Cand C1. one of which, C0 is the physical center in the plane of rotation of the ring, and the other, C1 is out, or far beyond the plane of rotation of the ring, in the center of the sphere of celestial body. So much for this phenomenon.

We return to the mainstream of exposure.

The realization of this fact and the consciousness it is crucial for the development of future technologies of transport and development of material civilization in general, because it will  be based on it. Mature form of development of material civilization will be the aforementioned levitating civilization.

In addition to the curvature toward to the axis of ring’s rotation i.e point C0 which we can see immediately,  and in addition of explanation by which we can see that  the trajectory of the mass of the rotating body or some kind of ring, in the case of Figure 2, is also most necessary curved toward the center of the celestial bodie i.e. point C1.,  we can offer still one explanation.

Curvature toward center C1 can be understood from the following:

Let us suppose that on the surface of some quite large correct, smooth sphere we draw a small circle. Let’s say that this small circle is image of the every point of the path of the ring mass. The curvature of the small circle toward its own, coplanar center C0 we will see immediately. But curvature of the same small circle toward the center of the sphere, C1, her “spherical bulge and” general “spherical excess,” we will not be able to see it. But if we think logically, we will realize that this curvature is something necessary because each point on a smooth surface of sphere is equidistant from its center, and that is impossible, on the surface of sphere, to draw a line that would not be curved toward its center. Radiusvektor of curvature towards the center of sphere C1 , even at the smallest circle that can be drawn on the Earth’s surface is completely equal to the radiusvector of curvature of the Earth’s equator. See Figure 3.

Figure 3

Figure 3, 1, sferical surface os celestial body; 2,  center of celestial body;  3. gravifugal force,; 4, movement along curved surface; 5, imaginary straght lines connecting center of celestial body with sphere of stationary stars, 6 sphere of stationary stars.

On the surface of sphere it is impossible to draw a line which is not curved toward the center of the sphere. Gravifugal force, 3, does not arise from that curvature itself, but only from movement of some mass, along the curved (spherical) surface, 4, intersects the imaginary straight line, 5, connecting the center of the celestial bodies and points of the sphere of fixed stars, “orbis coelestis” or “absolute space”, 6. Such movement is real, absolute movement, and if it is allways at equidistant from a center of celestial body, 2, i.e. if it is curved toward it, necessarily causes gravifugal force, 3

Stil one explanation. See Figure 4. The ring which rotates in vicinity of the Earth’s surface, and whose axis of rotation is coaxial with the direction of gravity action, at the same time, has two essential curvature of its mass:  one perpendiculary toward to its axis of rotation (center C0), and other towards the center of gravity of Earth ( C1). Imagination can not create such vision, but the mind must be able to clearly comprehend this phenomena.

Figure 4 is used for the illustration of these things.

Figure 4 At the ring rotating in vicinity of the Earth’s surface, it seems that the trajectory of its own mass is tangential in relation to surface of celestial body and in relation to its center of gravity. But it is just our illusion. Each point on the ring,  in every moment , and every bit of its mass,  is always at the same distance,  from the center of the Earth, which means that it is curved toward center of Eart. Rotating particle of the ring mass describes the mantle of a cone, which top is in the center of the Earth (C1) and the base circle of the ring itself. Only when we develop the mantle of this cone, we can clearly see that the trajectory of the mass of the ring is not flat nor tangential, in regard to celestial body, than rather circular, ie, curved towards the top (center of the Earth (C1).

Radius of curvature of the mass of the ring toward its axis of rotation or center C0  is very small, but its curvature is very large and easy to see. By contrast, radius of curvature toward the center of the Earth (C1)  is very large (approximately 6,367,657meters), the curvature is very small, almost imperceptible.

Because of action of  forces from the points C0 and C1 i. e.  because of solidopetal and gravipetal forces, ring mass reacts (Newton 3) by the centrifugal (solidofugal), Fsf  and “unknown” gravifugal force Fgf

Size of the first calculated by the equation:

Fcf or Fsf = mv2/r,

Equation to calculate gravifugal force, Fgf :

Fgf  =  mv2 /R

“Ordinary centrifugal force”, Fcf  or Solidopetal, Fsf has no any influens to the direction and value of gravifugal force, Fgf Fcf

Radius of the ring, r can be amount to a few meters or a few tens of meters, also can be even less than one meter. In contrast, the minimum length of the radius of the Earth, R at the Earth’s surface is approximately 6,360,000 meters and therefore useful gravifugal force, Fgf  is 6.36 million times smaller than the common known centrifugal or solidofugal force, Fsf

Another thing. We all know that the Earth rotates arround its axis, so it is necessary that produces or creates gravifugal force. It has been detected long time ago and precisely measured by gravimeters at all geographical latitudes from 00 do 90geo. lat., but due to the already described overlook it was considered as a derivative of geocentrifugal or more precisely: geoaxifugal forces arising from the rotation of the Earth.

So much on solidofugal and gravifugal force.

We continue with a few words about gravifugal flying craft.

Already at the end of the last century it was possible to develop the craft of nano-tubes. The maximum theoretically possible speed of the ring made of existing tubes or nano-graphene is 8.75 km/sec.2. This speed enables vertical acceleration ring of about 2 m/sec.2 . If the housing ring and construction craft were also made of nano-tubes or graphene would be able to bear the burden of about one fifth of the weight of the ring and raise the vertical acceleration of about 0.1 m/sec.2

For comparison we point out that the largest rocket, the SATURN V at the start weight of three thousand and five hundred tons and can carry into orbit a weight of 200 tons. The ring of the three thousand tons, could carry into orbit a load of about 600 tons. And not only that. You could take that burden into orbit several times in one day, or at least a thousand times a year, with expenditure of inconceivably small amounts of electricity. This stems from the law of conservation of energy and the fact that gravity is a conservative force, ie. that keeps the work expended in its mastering and it is able to return it to the device that spent , which is inherently conservative and who again keep it and is capable again use it for the next elevation of the flying craft or some other useful work.

Of course this is not some kind of perpetualmotion machine. It is rather ordinary, but very economical device.

The place here is a scheme gravifugal flying craft. This one has no mechanical nor ion ring as some other types of this kind of gravifugal flying craft, but the quantum – ring made by the clean, monochromatic light. Figure 5

Figure 5. 1, toroidal tube with a mirror smooth inner walls; 2, light, i.e., a quantum ring; 3, light sources; 4, transparent photoelectric elements; 5 device for creating an electric field; 6, spacecraft structure of nano-tubes; 7, passage which connects the different room units; 8 useful space; 9 electric batteries.

The gravifugal flying craft fitted with quantum ring functions in following way:  the electricity from the battery, 9 through the light source, 3 is converted into light, 2 and fills the toroidal tube spacecraft and moves simultaneously in clockwise and reverse. Since the wall of tube are smooth like mirror, the light must circulate indefinitely, without the possibility to disappear. When sufficient “amount” of light was inserted in the tube, the spacecraft begins to lift. It is lowered so as to reduce the light quantity in the tube, and this in turn performed so that the transparent photoelectric elements 4 penetrate into the tube body. Going through them, the light is again converted into  electricity and back to the battery, 9.

The possibility of using the light ring is based on Einstein’s discovery that light changes the direction of its movement when passing close to strong gravitational fields – that turns toward the center of the celestial body just like a mass. Here Einstein’s hypothesis measurements proved by lord Edington in 1919 when it was found that the Sun’s gravity actually bends the light beam.

Forr this matter is the same whether the light corpuscles, photon, a quantum of energy, wave or information. The important thing is that it responds to the gravitational field as well as the masses.

On some other, interesting aspects of this phenomenon on which were the words you read on:

https://petarbosnicpetrus.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/abc-of-levitation/?frame-nonce=59b5fee084

At the first step I recommend the test experiment with carbonfibre ring 30 – 40 cm in diameter – fig. 6 and average velocity of its mass cca 500m/sec.  I recommend the ring without firm axis, but only magnetic bearing (to avoid vigrations).  Propulsion: 3 phase electric power with changable freqency and asinhronous rotation magnetic field.  In accordance with equation.

agf = v2 /R , by average velocity of the ring mass of 500m/sec. it can achieve vertical, gravifugal acceleration, agf cca 0, 392 m/sec2

Fig. 6

image126.jpg

Figure 6. 1 is mass of the ring made by carbon fiber or nano-tubes; 2 are magnetes of permanent magnet bearing (ring or rotor); 3 magnetes of permanent magnet bearing of casing or stator; 4 aluminum mass of the ring; 5 electromagnetes made by high frequency electromagnetic core and coils – powered by 3-phase electric current;6 mass of the casing made by carbon-fiber or polyester mass.

Figure 6

Coils are powered by 3-phase electric current. They are mounted in such a way as to allow creation of a revolving magnetic field. By linking the coils into the electric circuit an opposing magnetic field is also induced in the aluminum ring mass. Due to the effect of the magnetic field the ring begins to turn in the same direction as the magnetic field of the casing. The velocity of the ring is dependent on the velocity of rotation of the casing magnetic field, while the rotation velocity of the magnetic field is dependent on the frequency of the electric power (alternating).

Formula to calculate maximal relative velocity (velocity in regard to motionless neighborhood of the ring) is as follow.

v =√D • 2F/ m

In this formula: v is velocity of ring mass, D is diameter of the ring; F is tensile strenght of the material in which the ring is made; m is mass of the ring.

If the ring is made in graphene, maximal velocity is  9774m/sec.

That velocity enables gravifugal acceleration of cca 15m/sec2

Minus gravitational acceleration, g of 9,81m/sec2

is cca 5m/secof gravifugal acceleration.

LEBDEĆA CIVILIZACIJA

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Petar Bosnić Petrus

GRAVIFUGALNA LETJELICA

Sažetak –

Preduvjeti za razumijevanje fizikalnih temelja i funkcionirnja gravifugalne letjelice.

Ovaj rad pokazuje da kružnica ili krug nemaju samo jedan geometrijski centar, kao što se obično misli, nego beskonačno mnogo njih, C0, C1, C2, C3, C4 itd te da su svi smješteni na pravcu koji je okomit na ravninu kruga, kružnice ili ravninu rotacije (vidi sliku 1). Neki od njih, kao npr C0, uz to što su geometrijski, također su i fizikalni centri, jer su ishodište, ili hvatište centripetalne sile.

Čisti geometrijski centri zapravo su točke transcendentalne naravi, ali to je druga tema i drugo pitanje, pitanje filozofije. Sada nećemo o tome, jer se bavimo fizikom.

Slika 1

Nadalje, otkrivajući spomenute preduvjete, ovaj rad pokazuje i naglašava da fizikalni centar kružnice ili rotacije može biti smješten i izvan ravnine rotacije. Primjer je rotacija prstena pri površini nebeskog tijela.(Slika 2) Kod takve rotacije, između beskonačno mnogo onih geometrijskih, postoje dva fizikalna centra. Jedan je koplanaran ravnini rotacije prstena i hvatište je „obične“ centripetalne sile. To je C0.  Drugi, C1 nalazi se u središtu nebeskog tijela, i hvatište je gravipetalne sile – gravitacije koja djeluje kao centripetalna sila. Vidi sliku 2

Slika 2

Ako u blizini masivnog nebeskog tijela rotira nekakav prsten i ako mu je os rotacije vertikalna, tj. koaksijalna s pravcem djelovanja gravitacije što djeluje kao centripetalna sila, posljedica, (reakcija) je. pojava gravifugalne sile, Fgf  Ona ima isti pravac djelovanja kao i gravipetalna, koja djeluje duž radiusa r1, ali suprotan smjer (Newton 3). Ta, gravifugalna sila, Fgf omogućuje podizanje i lebdenje stvari, levitiranje. Dosadašnje mišljenje koje je previđalo fizikanu stvarnost ekstraplanarnog centra prstena C1 previđalo je nužno i gravifugalnu silu Fgf i smatralo da se prsten ne može podizati duž osi svoje rotacije. Vertikalna komponenta gravifugalne sile Fgf tretirala se kao cos 900 „obične centrifugalne sile”, Fcf   koja je, u tom slučaju je uvijek i nužno jednaka nuli.

Još neke razloge, zbog kojih je moguće i nužno, samopodizanje brzo rotirajućeg prstena duž osi njegove rotacije i levitacija, pokazati ćemo i na druge načine dolje niže.

Tehnološka i praktička svrha ovog rada

Rad pokazuje da je moguće izraditi letjelicu koja gravifugalnom silom može neutralizirati gravitaciju.

Jedna od glavnih funkcija letjelice je da bude transportno sredstvo u atmosferskom i svemirskom saobraćaju. Za razliku od raketa koje se mogu upotrijebiti samo jednom, ova se letjelica može upotrijebiti stotine, tisuće ili milijune puta. Radni vijek trebao bi joj biti neusporedivo duži od radnog vijeka najsolidnijeg automobila, praktički neograničen. A transport pomoću nje neusporedivo jeftiniji, zanemariv.

Odlazak u svemir i povratak na zemlju, pomoću ove letjelice bio bi riskantan, opasan i kompliciran isto koliko i ustajanje sa stolca na kojem sjedimo i ponovno sjedanje na nj.

Najveću udaljenost na zemlji, 20 000 km (polovinu ekvatora) ova bi letjelica prevaljivala za manje od 50 minuta, sa utroškom goriva koji bi bio daleko ispod 1% energetskih troškova suvremenih aviona, koji „rone“ kroz atmosferu i gotovo svo gorivo potroše na savladavanje otpora zraka. Gravifugalna letjelica može lebdjeti i u vakuumu.

Za uzdizanje ova bi letjelica koristila električnu energiju iz svojih akumulatora. Energija bi se trošila na ubrzavanje jednog širokog prstena koji bi stvarao gravifugalnu silu. Da bi se letjelica mogla vratiti natrag na zemlju ili se spustiti na neko drugo nebesko tijelo, trebalo bi usporiti prsten. On bi se usporavao tako što bi se njegova kinetička energija pretvarala ponovo u električnu i vraćala u akumulatore. Tako bi utrošak energije za ovaj izlet bio praktički ravan nuli.

To nije u suprotnosti sa Zakonom o održanju energije, kako se može učiniti na prvi pogled, nego najnužnije proizlazi iz njega. Gravifugalna letjelica nije nikakav perpetuumobile nego samo, iznimno ekonomičan način korištenja raspoložive energije

A ako bi letjelica stalno lebdjela na nekoj određenoj visini, ne bi se vršio nikakav rad, što je znanosti fizike dobro poznato, pa bi utrošak energije za njeno lebdenje opet bi bio ravan nuli, čak i ako bi lebdenje trajalo milijun godina i ako bi težina letjelice iznosila milijune ili milijarde tona.

Zbog toga bi ova letjelica bila pogodna za izradu lebdećih kuća, gradova, plantaža i cijelih otoka – cijele lebdeće civilizacije.

Ta, lebdeća civilizacija doista će biti zreli, potpuno razvijeni oblik materijalne civilizacije na Zemlji. Neće biti izgrađena od kamena, betona i čelika, nego isključivo od uglika – od ugljičnih vlakana, grafena i ugljičnih nano-cijevi. Život u njoj bit će neusporedivo zdraviji, sigurniji, udobniji ljepši i manje skup, nego život na površini Zemlje.

Ovo nije nikakva fantazija nego realna budućnost i to vrlo bliska Osnovana je na najstrožoj primjeni zakona klasične znanosti fizike, prvenstveno Zakona o održanju energije i nebeske mehanike.

Ako nekoga zanima kako je moguća i koliko je realna ovakva civilizacija, neka pogleda:

https://petarbosnicpetrus.wordpress.com/2014/06/09/levitacija/

U tom kratkom članku vidjeti će da je lebdenje prirodni i bazični način postojanja materije i da, prema tome, lebdeća materijalna civilizacija ne bi bila nikakvo čudo niti izuzetak, nego najprirodniji način opstanka ili postojanja – povratak prirodi.

U svojoj stvarnosti, svijet je puno drugačiji nego što se to pričinja primitivcima i nemisaonim ljudima uopće, pogotovo onim prividno misaonima, takozvanim alternativcima.

Gravifugalna sila

Gravifugalna sila je manifestacija inertnosti mase u slučajevima rotacije u kojima gravitacija ima funkciju centripetalne sile, sile koja neko tijelo skreće na kružnu putanju oko centra nekog nebeskog tijela.

U takvim slučajevima u kojima gravitacija ima funkciju centripetalne sile, gravitaciju ne nazivamo prosto gravitacijom, nego gravipetalnom silom.

Masa orbitirajućeg tijela opire se promjeni smjera kretanja i manifestira se kao (gravifugalna) sila, što djeluje po istom pravcu kao i gravipetalna, ali u suprotnom smjeru. (Newton 3).

Važna opaska

U prethodnom, gore navedenom članku pokazao sam da gravifugalna sila ne odbija, nego odvlači orbitirajuću masu od nebeskog tijela oko kojeg orbitira i stoga ju ne zovemo odbojnom, repulzivnom, nego odvlačnom, detraktivnom silom. To da je gravifugalna sila detraktivna, a ne repulzivna, za čovjeka je sretna okolnost, jer veličine odvlačnih, detraktivnih sila ne opadaju s kvadratom udaljenosti, s R2, od središta ili površine nebeskog tijela, kao repulzivne, nego linearno, s R. Zbog te svoje osobine, gravifugalna sila veoma je ekonomična – „za kvadrat“ ekonomičnija od one hipotetske, tj. mitske antigravitacije. Eto, samo toliko.

Vraćamo se glavnoj temi.

Ako je brzina orbitirajćeg tijela dovoljno velika onda je vektorski zbroj gravifugalne i gravipetalne sile jednak nuli i ono dolazi u stanje stvarne levitacije, trajno bestežinsko stanje. Npr. Svemirski brodovi i astronauti koji orbitiraju Zemlju brzinom od cca7,9 km /sec. (tzv. prvom kozmičkom brzinom).

Zemlja je, u odnosu na Sunce, u stanju stvarne levitacije jer se kod kruženja oko njega, pri brzini brzini do 30 km/sec. vektorski zbroj njihovih gravipetalnih i gravifugalnih sila svodi na nulu. Isto biva i kod većih nebeskih objekata ili formacija, ali i kod onih manjih. Elektron koji orbitira atomsku jezgru je u stanju stvarne levitacije u odnosu na nju, jer se elektropetalna i elektrofugalna sila koje se tu javljaju svode na nulu.

Budući da je, kako smo već nagovijestili, svekolika materija univerzuma u stanju rotacije, i to upravo brzinom koja uravnotežuje sve centripetalne i centrifugalne sile i svodi ih na nulu, cijeli materijalni svemir levitira sam u sebi. Stvarna levitacija, trajno bestežinsko stanje je stvarno, osnovno ili prirodno stanje svekolike materije.

Kad bi brzina rotacije bila manja svemir bi se urušio sam u sebe, a kad bi bila veća, razletio bi se poput diska koji se prebrzo vrti.

Gravifugalna sila bila je poznata još od Newton – Hygensovih vremena. Oni su dali formulu za njeno izračunavanje i ona je danas osnova, alfa i omega takoreći cijele astronautike.

To je formula:

Fgf  = mv2/R

Veličina Gravipetalne sile, Fgp  može se izračunati i iz jednadžbe :

Fgp ili mggp = GMm/R2 – mv2/R, odakle proizlazi da je veličina gravipetalnog ubrzanja, ggp

ggp = (GM –v2)/ R

Važna opaska√

Kod vrtnje čvrstog tijela kojemu vrtnju omogućuje čvrstoća, soliditas, odnosno solidopetalna sila –  koja je tzv. pseudosila – centripetalna i centrifugalna akceleracija rastu s povećanjem brzine. No kod vrtnje bazirane na gravipetalnoj sili, (gravitaciji koja je fundamentalna sila, a vrši funkciju centripetalne sile.) zbiva se sasvim suprotno, centripetalno, odnosno gravipetalno i gravifugalno ubrzanje smanjuju se s porastom brzine, a pri brzini levitacije odnosno satelizacije padaju na nulu. Eto, samo toliko u ovoj opasci.

Vraćamo se glavnom toku naše teme.

Brzina, v potrebna za postizanje satelizacije odnosno stvarne levitacije, trajnog bestežinskog stanja, pri zadanom radiusu, R izračunava se iz jednadžbe.

GMm/R2 = mv2/R, iz koje proizlazi da je ta brzina satelizacije vs ili brzina levitacije vl;

vl = √GM/R      

U gornjim jednadžbama G je gravitacijska konstanta, M je masa nebeskog tijela, m je masa malog orbitirajućeg tijela, v je brzina orbitirajućeg tijela. R je udaljenost malog orbitirajućeg tijela ili mase, m od centra, odnosno težišta nebeskog tijela.

U najnižim orbitama oko Zemlje brzina levitacije je nešto manja od 8 km/sec. (7,9 km/sec.) i opada s povećanjem visine, tj. radiusa R.

Osnova lebdećih kuća i lebdeće civilizacije biti će gravifugalna sila koja se dobija na specifičan način – rotacijom jednog širokog prstena kod kojeg je jedan, fizikalni centar njegove rotacije, C0 koplanaran s ravninom rotacije prstena a drugi, C1 daleko izvan, tj. „ispod“ ravnine rotacije prstena u središtu ili težištu nebeskog tijela. O tome će biti govora dole niže, u glavnom dijelu ovog članka. Gravifugalna sila koju bude stvarala rotacija ovog prstena nositi će konstrukciju letjelice i njen teret koji neće rotirati.

Razumnom se čitatelju sada, samo od sebe, mora nametnuti pitanje: Ako je jednadžba za izračunavanje veličine gravifugalne sile i način njenog postizanja poznat već stoljećima, zašto se onda mučimo s tako opasnim, skupim i neekonomičnim raketama?

Zašto nije napravljena gravifugalna letjelica????

Tome ima više razloga.

Kao prvog, mada ne i najvažnijeg navodimo činjenicu da su tek nedavno otkriveni i stvoreni dovoljno čvrsti materijali za izradu ključnog elementa te letjelice – prstena koji može ne samo transcendirati poznate žiroksopske fenomene, nego također stvoriti dovoljno veliku gravifugalnu silu. To su nano-tubes i grafen. Jedino ako je prsten građen od tih materijala, on može postići brzine koje stvaraju dovoljno veliku i upotrebljivu gravifugalnu silu, a to su linearne brzine mase prstena veće od 8 km/sec. Kutna brzina rotacije prstena nema nikakve važnosti.

Materijali velike čvrstoće, soliditas potrebni su stoga što je „obična centrifugalna sila“ –  koju ja zovem i solidofugalnom, a koja djeluje u ravnini rotacije prstena i nastoji ga raskinuti – vrlo velika. Najveća je pri površini Zemlje. Tu je cca 6,36 milijuna puta veća od gravifugalne. Savladati tu silu i spriječiti raskidanje prstena, danas se može samo ako je prsten građen od grafena i nano-tubes. Na sreću, veličina omjera centrifugalne ili solidofugalne sile prema gravifugalnoj opada s povećavanjem visine letjelice.

Drugi presudno važan razlog jest nedostatak ili zanemarivanje određenih, znanstvenih spoznaja koje se odnose na rotaciju u gravitacijskom polju.

Evo o čemu se radi. No, najprije nekoliko stvari koje bi trebale biti poznate.

Centrifugalne sile (koje su manifestacija inercije mase) nastaju u slučajevima u kojima se neka masa kreće zakrivljenom, kružnom putanjom oko neke zadane točke (centra), točke koja je hvatište (centripetalne) sile, koja privlači masu rotirajućeg tijela i skreće ju na kružnu putanju. Centrifugalne sile, bilo da se radi o solidofugalnoj, gravifugalnoj, elektrofugalnoj ili nekoj drugoj, uvijek su Newtonovska reakcija mase na djelovanje neke centripetalne sile i uvijek imaju isti pravac djelovanja kao centripetalna, ali suprotan smjer. Vidi sliku 1.

No, Prije nego započnemo izlaganje, definirat ćemo kružnicu i kuglu.

Kružnica je geometrijski lik kod kojeg su sve njegove točke podjednako udaljene od zadane točke, centra, npr., C0. Vidi sliku 1

Kugla je geometrijsko tijelo kod kojeg su sve točke na njenoj površini jednako udaljene od središta kugle.  Vidi sliku 2

Očekuje se da čitatelj stalno ima na umu ove stvari, pogotovo ono što se odnosi na kuglu.

Slika 1 koja pokazuje kružnicu, pokazuje još jednu iznimno, esencijalno važnu stvar: da svaka kružnica nema samo jedan, nego beskonačno mnogo geometrijskih centara C0, C1, C2, C3…itd, kao i to da su svi ti centri smješteni na pravcu koji je okomit na ravninu kruga, a prolazi kroz točku, centra, C0. Iz svake točke na kružnici (npr. iz točke A ) može se, na os rotacije povući beskonačno mnogo radiusa različite veličine: r0, r 1, r2, r3 … itd.

Ukoliko se radi o rotaciji čvrstog diskoidnog tijela, plitkog cilindra, ili nekog prstena, (Vidi sliku 1), od svih centara privilegiran je i važan samo centar Co, jer je on izvorište, tj. ishodište ili hvatište centripetalne sile. Centar C0, dakle, nije samo geometrijski, ili transcendentalni, nego i fizikalni centar. Od svih mogućih radijusa, radijus r0 je jedini koji je važan i jedini koji je okomit na os rotacije i stoga je najkraći. On je radiusvektor duž kojega djeluju centripetalna i centrifugalna sila, Fcp i Fcf odnosno solidopetalna i solidofugalna, kako ih ja nazivam – Fsp i Fsf . No idemo dalje.

Kod rotacije čvrstog tijela, u gravitacijskom polju, (slika 2), npr. rotacije nekog prstena izgubilo se iz vida ili je zanemareno to da je putanja mase tog prstena – ako je os njegove rotacije koaksijalna s pravcem djelovanja gravitacije i prolazi kroz centar nebeskog tijela C1 (Slika 2) – da je, dakle, putanja mase tog prstena uvijek i nužno zakrivljena također i prema centru nebeskog tijela odnosno hvatištu gravitacijske, tj. gravipetalne sile (gravitacije koja djeluje kao centripetalna sila), te da se prilikom njegove rotacije, pored one poznate centrifugalne tj. solidofugalne sile, najnužnije razvija i ona „nepoznata“ gravifugalna sila Fgf .Vidi sliku 2

Slika 2

U slučaju prikazanom slikom 2 koja prikazuje kružnicu ili neki rotirajući prsten u blizini velikog nebeskog tijela, također se pokazuje da kružnica ili rotirajući prsten imaju beskonačno mnogo centara, C0, C1, C2, C3… i beskonačno mnogo radiusa, r0, r1, r2, r3 ,. no privilegirani, realni ili fizikalni centri su samo C0 i C1, kao i radiusi r0 i r1.

Centar C0 je privilegiran zato što je hvatište solidopetalne sile, koja putanju mase prstena skreće prema točki, odnosno centru C0, a centar C1 zato što je hvatište gravipetalne sile Fgp, koja djeluje duž radijusvektora r1 i koja putanju mase prstena skreće prema centru C1, i iz čijeg djelovanja nastaje reaktivna (centrifugalna tj. preciznije gravifugalna sila, Fgf. Kad centar C1 ne bi bio hvatište gravipetalne sile, on ne bi nikako mogao uzrokovati pojavu gravifuglane sile i bio bi samo jedan od beskonačno mnogo nevažnih geometrijskih centara izvan ravnine rotacije prstena, ploče ili diska.

Važna opaska

Opisanu pojavu – rotaciju nekog prstena pri površini ili u blizini nekog nebeskog tijela – ne smijemo shvatiti kao planimetrijsiku, nego kao stereometrijsku pojavu. Kod takve rotacije, rotacije u gravitacijskom polju, prsten, pored onih beskonačno mnogo geometrijskih centara, ima, kao što smo rekli, i dva fizikalna centra C0 i C1. od kojih je jedan, C0 je fizikalni centar koplanaran ravinini rotacije prstena , a drugi, C1 je ekstraplanaran, daleko izvan ravnine rotacije prstena, u središtu nebeskog tijela. Toliko o ovoj pojavi.

Vraćamo se matici izlaganja.

Spoznaja te činjenice i svijest njoj presudno je važna za razvoj buduće tehnologije transprota i civilizacije općenito, jer će se upravo na tome temeljiti budući, zreli oblik razvoja materijalne civilizacije – ona, već spomenuta lebdeća civilizacija.

Da je putanja mase rotirajućeg tijela ili nekakvog prstena, u slučaju sa slike 2, pored zakrivljenosti prema osi svoje rotacije, točki C0 najnužnije zakrivljena i prema središtu nebeskog tijela, točki C1 može se shvatiti i iz slijedećeg:

Pretpostavimo da na površini neke dosta velike pravilne, glatke kugle nacrtamo malu kružnicu. Recimo da je ta mala kružnica slika putanje mase prstena. Zakrivljenost male kružnice prema njenom vlastitom, koplanarnom centru, C0 odmah ćemo uočiti, ali zakrivljenost te iste male kružnice prema centru kugle, C1 njenu „sfernu ispupčenost“, opći „sferni eksces“ nećemo nikako moći vidjeti. No ako logično razmišljamo shvatit ćemo da je ta zakrivljenost nužna jer je svaka točka na glatkoj kuglinoj površini jednako udaljena od njenog središta i da je nemoguće na njenoj površini povući liniju koja ne bi bila zakrivljena prema njenom središtu. Radiusvektor zakrivljenosti prema kuglinom središtu čak i kod one najmanje kružnice koju se može nacrtati na kugli ili na površini Zemlje potpuno je jednak radiusu zakrivljenosti kuglinog ili Zemljinog ekvatora. Slika 3

Slika 3

Slika 3: 1,površina nebeskog tijela; 2, centar nebeskog tijela; 3. gravifugalna sila; 4,  kretanje po površini nebeskog tijela; 5 imaginarne prave liije koje spajaju centar nebeskog tijela sa točkama na sferi zvijezda stajačica.

Slika 3 Na kuglinoj površini nemoguće je povući liniju koja nije zakrivljena prema središtu kugle. Gravifugalna sila, 3 ne nastaje iz same te zakrivljenosti, nego onda kada kretanje neke mase potoj zakrivljenoj, tj. sfernoj površini nebeskog tijela, 4. presjeca imaginarne ravne linije, 5 koje spajaju centar nebeskog tijela i točke na sferi zvijezda stajačica, „orbis coelestis“ ili „apsolutnom prostoru“. 6. Takvo kretanje je stvarno, apsolutno kretanje, a budući da je zakrivljeno, nužno uzrokuje gravifugalnu silu. Gravifugalna sila, dakle, nužno nastaje, bez obzira na to da li se neka masa kreće „ravnom“ ili krivudavom putanjom, ili pak putanjom koja je zatvorena u neku malu kružnicu.

Još jedno objašnjenje. Vidi sliku 4. Kod diska ili prstena koji rotira, pri površini Zemlje, a čija je os rotacije koaksijalna sa pravcem djelovanja gravitacije istodobno, dakle, postoje, dvije bitne zakrivljenosti putanje njegove mase: ona prema osi njegove rotacije, tj. prema centru C0 i ona prema središtu, odnosno težištu Zemlje, centru C1. Mašta ne može stvoriti takvu predodžbu, ali um mora biti sposoban jasno pojmiti tu pojavu.

Slika 4 služi za za ilustraciju tih stvari.

Kod prstena koji rotira pri površini Zemlje, slika 4, čini se da je putanja njegove mase tangencijalna u odnosu na njenu površinu i u odnosu na njeno središte, centar C1 odnosno težište. No, to nam se samo čini, pričinja. Svaka točka na prstenu, svaki djelić njegove mase, uvijek je jednako udaljen od središta Zemlje, što znači da je zakrivljen, i pri rotaciji prstena opisuje plašt stošca, kojemu je vrh u središtu Zemlje, centru C1 a baza sam krug prstena. Tek kad razvijemo plašt tog stošca, možemo jasno vidjeti da putanja mase prstena nije ravna niti tangencijalna, nego kružna, tj. zakrivljena prema njegovu vrhu (središtu Zemlje).

Radius zakrivljenosti mase prstena prema njegovoj osi rotacije je jako mali, pa je zakrivljenost jako velika i lako uočljiva. Nasuprot njoj radius zakrivljenosti prema centru Zemlje jako je velik (cca 6,36 milijuna metara) pa je zakrivljenost jako mala, praktički neprimjetljiva.

Zbog djelovanja sila iz točaka C0 i C1 masa prstena reagira (Newton 3) na privlačno djelovanje centripetalne (solidopetalne) i gravipetalne sile (gravitacije koja djeluje kao centripetalna sila) i tako nastaju poznata centrifugalna (solidofugalna), Fsf i „nepoznata“ gravifugalna sila Fgf

Veličina one prve izračunava se jednadžbom:

Fsf = mv2/r,

a druge jednadžbom

Fgf  =  mv2 /R

Solidopetalna tj. obična centrifugalna sila nema nikakav utjecaj na veličinu i smjer djelovanja gravifugalne sile.

Radius prstena, r može iznositi nekoliko metara ili nekoliko desetina metara, a može bit čak i manji od jednog metra. Nasuprot njemu, najmanja dužina radijusa Zemlje, R pri površini Zemlje je cca 6,36 milijuna metara i zbog toga je gravifugalna sila 6,36 milijuna puta manja od obične i poznate centrifugalne ili solidofugalne.

Još nešto. Svima nam je poznato da Zemlja rotira, oko svoje osi, pa je nužno da proizvodi ili stvara gravifugalnu silu. Ona je već odavno detektirana i vrlo precizno izmjerena gravimetrima za sve geografske širine od 00 do 900,  ali je zbog već opisanih previda smatrana derivatom geocentrifuglalne ili preciznije: geoaksifugalne sile koja nastaje iz rotacije Zemlje oko njene vlastite osi.

Toliko o gravifugalnoj sili.

Nastavljamo s nekoliko riječi o gravifugalnoj letjelici.

Već je krajem prošlog stoljeća bilo je moguće izraditi letjelicu od nano-tubes. Najveća, teorijski moguća brzina prstena izrađenog od postojećih nano-tubes ili grafena iznosi 8,75km/sec. Ta brzina omogućuje vertikalno ubrzanje prstena od oko 2m/sec2. Ako bi kućište prstena i konstrukcija letjelice bili također izrađeni od nano-tubes ili grafena bili bi sposobni nositi teret od približno jedne petine težine samog prstena i uzdizati se vertikalno ubrzanjem od oko 0,1m/sec2.

Radi usporedbe navodimo da najveća raketa, Saturn V na startu teži tri tisuće tona, a ne može u orbitu ponijeti teret veći od 200 tona. Prsten koji bi imao jednaku težinu kao raketa, tri tisuće tona, mogao bi u orbitu odnijeti teret od oko 6oo tona. I ne samo to. Mogao bi toliki teret odnijeti u orbitu nekoliko puta u jednom danu ili barem tisuću puta godišnje i to sa utroškom nepojmljivo malih količina električne energije. To proizlazi iz zakona o održanju energije i činjenice da je gravitacija konzervativna sila, tj. da čuva rad utrošen u njeno savladavanje i da je sposobna vratiti ga uređaju koji ga je utrošio, koji je i sam po sebi konzervativan i koji ga opet čuva (bilo u obliku kinetičke energije prstena, bilo u obliku električne energije u akumulatorima)  i sposoban ga je opet upotrebiti za elevaciju letjelice ili neki drugi koristan rad.

Za kraj evo jedne sheme gravifugalne letjelice. Ova nema mehanički niti ionski prsten kao neki drugi tipovi ovakve letjelice, nego kvantni – prsten od čiste, monokromatske svjetlosti. Slika 5

Slika 5. 1 toroidni tubus s zrcalno glatkom unutrašnjom stjenkom; 2 svjetlosni, tj. kvantni prsten; 3 izvori svjetlosti; 4 prozirni fotoelektrični elementi; 5 uređaj za stvaranje električnog polja; 6 konstrukcija letjelice od nano-cijevi; prolaz koji spaja različite prostorne jedinice; 8 korisni prostor; 9 električne baterije.

Letjelica s kvantnim prstenom funkcionira tako da se električna energija iz baterija 9, posredstvom svjetlosnih izvora 3 pretvara u svjetlost 2 i ubacuje u toroidni tubus letjelice i kreće se istovremeno u smjeru kazaljki na satu i obrnutom. Budući da su stjenke tubusa zrcalno glatke, svjetlost mora beskonačno kružiti, bez mogućnosti da nestane. Kad je dovoljna “količina” svjetlosti ubačena u tubus, letjelica se počinje dizati. Spušta se tako da se smanji količina svjetlosti u tubusu, a to se pak izvodi tako da se prozirni fotoelektrični elementi 4 penetriraju u tubus. Prolazeći kroz njih, svjetlost se ponovo pretvara u električnu energiju i vraća u baterije 9.

Mogućnost korištenja svjetlosnog prstena zasniva se na Einsteinovom otkriću da svjetlost mijenja smjer svog kretanja kad prolazi blizu snažnih gravitacijskih polja – da skreće prema središtu nebeskog tijela baš kao i neka masa. Tu Einsteinovu hipotezu mjerenjima je dokazao lord Edington 1919. godine kad je ustanovio da Sunčeva gravitacija doista zakrivljuje zraku svjetlosti.

Nama je sasvim svejedno da li je svjetlost korpuskula, foton, kvant energije, val ili informacija. Bitno je samo to da ona reagira na gravitacijsko polje isto kao i masa.

O nekim drugim, zanimljivim aspektima ove pojave o kojoj je bilo riječi možete čitati na:

https://petarbosnicpetrus.wordpress.com/2014/06/09/levitacija/

Za prvi korak predložio bih eksperiment s prstenom od ugljičnih vlakana, prstenom promjera 30 do 40 cm i prosječnom brzinom njegove mase od 500m/sec, Prsten od ugljičnih vlakana može postiči maksimalnu brzinu od 1360m/sec. Radi izbjegavanja vibracija preporučujem prsten bez čvrste osovine. Sam prsten mogao bi funkcionirati kao rotor asinhronog elektromotora. Pokretala bi ga trofazna električna struja a brzina prstena mjenjala bi se promjenom frekvencije. Ona bi određivala brzinu rotacijskog magnetskog polja a brzina tog polja brzinu prstena. Pri prosječnoj brzini mase prstena od 500m/sec. Postiže se gravifugalna akceleracija od agf = 0, 392m/secPogledaj sliku 6

Slika 6

Image1695

Slika 6 1 je masa prstena izrađena od ugljičnih vlakana, nanotubes ili grafena; 2. Su permanentni magneti magnetskog ležaja na prstenu; 3 permanentni magneti magnetskog ležaja na kućištu ili statoru; 4 Aluminijska masa prstena; 5 Elektromagneti od visokofrekventnih magnetskih jezgri; 6 masa kućišta izrađena od ugljičnih vlakana ili nanocijevi

Formula za izračunavanje maksimalno muguće brzine prstena je

v = (√D∙2F) /m

U ovoj formuli v je prosječna brzina mase prstena; D je promjer, dijametar prstena, F je čvrstoća materijala od kojeg je napravljen prsten; m je ukupna masa prstena. Budući da su ugljična vlakna, nano cijevi i grafen dijamagnetične naravi, prsten ne mora imati metalnih djelova na sebi u kojima bi se inducirala struja.

Prsten izrađen od grafena mogao bi postići brzinu od 9774m/sec. Ta brzina omogućuje gravifugalnu akceleraciju od cca 15m/sec2. ako od toga odbijemo gravitacijsku akceleraciju od 9,821m/sec2 dobijemo čistu vertikalnu gravifugalnu akceleraciju od oko 5m/sec2

Zbog zemljine rotacije nije svejedno na kojoj geografskoj širini izvodite eksperiment.

Jedan eksperiment

Hayasaka i Takeuchi postigli su smanjenje težine od 0,0000028 do 0,000019mg što vrlo precizno odgovara računanju na bazi gravigfugalne teorije. Ali oni su izvodili eksperiment sa vrlo malim linearnim i apsolutnim brzinama (od 9m/sec. do 18m/sec.) i žiorskopima lošeg oblika, pa se njihovi rezultati, (a i rezultati nekoliko sličnih eksperimenata) – budući da su neobjašnjivi bez gravifugalne teorije – uglavnom smatraju sistemskom greškom uzrokovanoj vibracijama.

Vidi: https://es.slideshare.net/ssuser5ee816/anomalous-weight-reduction-on-a-gyroscopes-right-rotations-around-the-vertical-axis-on-the-earth

Kratka povijest ovog projekta.

Osnovna ideja nastaje 1968. Prvi pokusi uspješno su izvedeni su 1973 na tehnološkom fakultetu u Zagrebu. Od tada se razvijaju važni elementi pogona i cijele letjelice.

Negdje oko 2000te gradonačelnik Samobora bio je ing. strojarstva D. Filipec. On je inicirao radnje koje su vodile izradi uređaja kojim bi se testirao pogon letjelice. Za izradu eksperimentalnog uređaja Odabran je Končar. No njihovi stručnjaci nisu vjerovali u projekt i rekli su da je pogon besmislen, pa su odbili učestvovati postavivši cijenu izrade uređaja od oko 160 000 DM .

No, na sreću, za ovu Samoborsku inicijativu čuo je poduzetnik Zdravko Pavković i ponudio se da sponzorira izradu pogonskog uređaja. Dva mjeseca nakon toga uređaj je bio gotov i uspješno je testiran u Samoborskom Brezju u manufakturi za proizvodnju električnih transformatora, Kedmenec. Koštao je ukupno 2 000 DM.

Nekoliko mjeseci kasnije, aerospace inženjeri, braća Kevin i Kyle Golsh, Clearwater Florida USA, koji su od mene dobili nacrte i dozvolu za izradu, također su uspješno testirali isti takav pogonski uređaj, samo nešto veći.

Slijedi pokušaj nekolicine Slovenskih i jednog Njemačkog inženjera te Iskre i Elektrotehničkog fakulteta u Ljubljani. Nakon što su već bili izrađeni neki djelovi, došlo je do gašenja projekta, a čini se da je inicijativa za gašenje došla iz Iskre.

Nakon toga, teorijski razvijam eksperimentalni uređaj baziran na vrlo čvrstim komercijalnim ugljičnim vlaknima koji bi mogao smanjiti vlastitu težinu za oko 2,4 do 2,7 %. Nacrti su gotovi i čeka se izrada. 

Nakon uspješnog testiranja ovog uređaja koji bi, uz volonterski rad i sretne okolnosti, koštao od  60 000 do 100 000 Eura, moglo bi se pristupiti izgradnji letjelice od nano tubes i grafena, koja bi mogla levitirati i postići visinu orbite na kojoj kruže sateliti, a i veću, te se daljinskim upravljanjem vratiti natrag u bazu. Uz dosta volonterskog stručnog rada, dobru volju i interes proizvođaća nano tubes i grafena te minimalni broj tehničkih grešaka, ovaj eksperimentalni uređaj koštao bi od 300 000 – 500 000 Eura.

U toku je potraga za novcem i stručnjacima koji bi radili na onoj prvoj letjelici građenoj od komercijalnih ugljičnih vlakana.

Samobor, 27. 02. 2017.