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GRAVITY

24.03.2016.

Petar Bosnic Petrus

GRAVITY AND  LEVITATION

Phenomenon of levitation in general

Physical levitation appears when some body does not react to the action of an attracting force. Absence of necessary reactions:

  1. acceleration toward the point of application of an attracting force, or
  2. weight

can be caused by simultaneous action of some repellent force, or by particular (circular) movement of levitating body in a field of an attracting force.

(There are also some opinions claiming that levitation can be caused by some spiritual force. More about it at the end of this text.)

Physical levitation is always levitating, hovering, or floating in relation to something, or in regard to something – in regard to magnet, or body with electrostatic charge; in regard to surface of Earth or surface of some other celestial body.

Real and apparent levitation

It is necessary to different real and apparent levitation. Real levitation is in fact permanent weightless state.- state in which body lose or have lost its weight. All other cases of levitation, in which the body retain entire its weight are cases of apparent levitation.

Cases of apparent levitation

are: magnetic levitation, diamagnetic, electrostatic, aerodinamic, sound and some others. In these cases, or kinds of levitation it is achieved by repelling of magnet poles or electrostatic charges, or by repelling from air. In all these cases, the levitating bodies (by the means of invisibile magnetic or electric field, or air ), by entire its weight, are pressing, the surface above the which they are levitating. Apparent levitation is very usefull. It is used in many ways in contemporary technology: magnet bearings, maglev trains, hovercrafts, helicopters etc.etc. But these kinds of levitation are eficacious and economical, only at a very small distances – from several milimeters to several decimeters.

All cases of apparent levitation are divided in two kinds: 1. levitation in which is necessary to consume energy to maintain the state of levitation. 2. Levitation in which is not necessary to consume energy. Levitating of helicopters and hovercrafts belong to the first kind. Magnetic levitation, diamagnetic and similar, based in repellent forces arising from magnetic or electrostatic fields, belong to the 2nd kind. This 2nd kind of levitation is much more economic.

Real levitation,

as just was stated, is in fact permanent weightless state. It was achieved by circular, i.e. orbital movement in Earths gravitational field. E.g. Levitation of astronauts in their spaceships. In the mentioned kind of movement, gravity functions as an atracting, centripetal force – force curving the trajectory of the moving bodies (eg. Satelites) into circular shape (arround the celestial body). Mass of the body react, i.e. resist to the changing of its line of motion. (Gallileo: Law of inerty and Newton 3 Law of equality of the action and reaction.) Consequence of that resistance, i.e. inertia of the mass of body – at the velocity 7, 9km/sec.- is permanent weightless state – the real levitation. Inertia of body mass manifests itself as a centrifugal force. Centrifugal force is a reaction to the centripetal force action. (Newton, 3).

Permanent weightless state, i.e. real levitation is, therefore consequence of equality of centripetal and centrifugal force. During that levitation, bodies are losing only its weight, but not its mass neither inertia. This kind of levitation is functional and efficacious also at a very large distances.

Permanent weightless state, or real levitation achieved by using centrifugal force, i.e. by orbiting Earth, is necessary to maintain satelites in its orbit, but it is very bad for human health. However, in despite of it, this kind of levitation is the most important kind of levitation to human species.

To maintain a state of real levitation is not necessary to consume any energy. Artificial or natural satelites are able to levitate in regard to some celestial body even bilion years, without any energy consumation. E.g. levitating of the Moon in regard to Earth or Earth in regard to Sun. Good examples of that phenomenon are also geostationary satelites. Energy must be consumed only to achieve velocity of satelization and to achieve certain orbit. Because of this property, real levitation is extraordinary economic means for realizing some vital goals of human species.

Equation which serves to find the velocity of levitation, vl is as follow:

vl = root GM/R

where The G is gravitational constant, M is mass of Earth and R is a radius, i.e. distance of satelite from the center of gravity of Earth.

Velocity of levitation, vl is in fact the velocity of satelisation, vs.

In a lowest Earths orbits it is cca 7,9km/sec. In a higher orbits, this velocity is lesser. Geostationary satelites are levitating above the certain point at the equator orbiting the Earth by velocity cca 3,05km/sec. Its angular velocity is equal to that of Earth. Moon is levitating in relation to Earth on a base of orbital velocity of 1,002km/sec., arround the Earth. Earth is levitating in regard to Sun on a base of the velocity of 30km/sec., arround the Sun.

As just was stated, Earth is in weightless state and levitate in regard to Sun, the people and things on Earth’s surface too. But the people and things on Earth’s surface are not in weightless state and are not levitating in regard to Earth.

Important note Temporary weightless state can be achieved by an aircraft moving in a parabolic trajectory and free falling chamber, but only for a short time. Weightless state achieved in a such way is not levitation, because it is not possible to say that the free falling body is a levitating body. Phenomenon of levitation excludes falling down.

Therefore, every case of weightless state is not a levitation, and every levitation need not to be weightless state.

We have names for different kinds of apparent levitation: diamagnetic, magnetic, electrostatic,sound etc. but we still have not the name for main and most important kind of real levitation. For that kind of levitation I sugest the name „gravifugal“.

Gravifugal levitation

In all previously mentioned cases of real levitation, in which gravity functions as a centripetal force, instead of terms centripetal and centrifugal, I sugest to use terms „gravipetal“ and „gravifugal“. Gravifugal force is a reaction to the gravipetal force action. However, it is pseudoforce. Gravipetal force – as just was stated – is nothing but gravity functioning as a centripetal force. E. g. weightless state of astronauts, is a case of gravifugal levitation, as well as, eg. levitation of the Earth in regard to Sun and others. Speaking by theese terms, gravifugal levitation, which is a kind of real levitation, is a consequence of equality and cancelling out of gravifugal and gravipetal force. See:

Note Difference between the gravity and gravipetal force is not only in its names or terms, than rather in its very nature and mathematical expressions by which is possible to find its values. Expresion for the value of gravity, F is:

F = GMm/ R2

and for value of gravipetal force:

Fgp = GMm R2 – mv2/R

It is also equation for calculating resultant force and gravifugal force.

G is the gravitational constant, M is a mass of celestial body, m is a mas of observed orbiting body, R is a distance from rotating body to center of E.g. Earth, v is velocity of rotating observed body and r is radius of rotating solid body.

Electrofugal levitation

is also real levitation. Electron orbiting atom nuclei is in a weightless state in regard to that nuclei – in a state of levitation. Weightless state of electron is based in equality and canceling out the electropetal and electrofugal force.

Magnetofugal and nucleofugal levitation.

also are kinds of real levitation.

Inevitability of new terms

Using the new terminology, it is possible to different various kinds of levitation: magnetic, magnetofugal, electrostatic, electrofugal, gravifugal etc. etc. Furthermore, it enables us to different exactly, scientifically the real and apparent levitation and also define it. In a lack of term «gravifugal», the most important kind of levitation to human race existed without proper name.

Causes of real levitation

Real levitation is achieved by opposing the inertia of body to some atracting (fundamental) force, functioning as a centripetal force (gravipetal, electropetal …etc.). We are opposing it by circular motion of body and certain velocity arround the point of application of attracting (centripetal) force. Circular movement increases an inertia and it pull the mass in opposite direction of that of gravity action.

Important note. Only by opposing a body inertia to the eg. gravitational attracting force, it is possible prevent, or stop the gravitational acceleration of body in such way that it can arrive to permanent weightless state, i.e. becomes to levitate.

Causes of an apparent levitation

If we, However, prevent gravitational acceleration of that body by force arising from magnetic or electrostatic field, the body starts to float, or levitate above some magnet pole or electrostatic charge. As just was stated, during the apparent levitation, the levitating bodies are retaining its weight.

Although, at the first glance, the weight seems to be property of body, it is in fact manifestation of an attracting force in a case of prevented acceleration. Every force, in a case of opposing to the force of gravity, can make the body to be heavy. (Except in a cases in which those forces are appearing as centrifugal forces arising from circular movement and body inertia) Force which causes an apparent levitation, (eg. Electricity or magnetism), however, in the same time, causes also the weight of body, even, in the same way as any solid surface on which body can stand or lie.

Kinds of real levitation

Here are the forces able to function as an attracting, centripetal force: Terms «centripetal» and «centrifugal» are just denominations of direction of force actioning – towards to centre, or away from it.

Force………….. centripet. dir…….Centrifug. dir….cosnsquence

Gravity…………gravipetal……………gravifugal………….levitation in regard to celestial body

Electricity………electropetal…………electrofugal………levitation in regard to atom nuclei

Nuclear f………..nucleopetal………….nucleofugal………in regard to nucleon or atom nuclei

Magnetism……..magnetopetal……….magnetofugal……in regard to one magnetic pole.

Solidity………… solidopetal………….solidofugal………here is no levitation.

Real levitation can appear only if one of fundamental forces functions as centripetal force.

Solidity, which enables solid body to rotate, is declared as an apparent force or pseudoforce. Solidofugal force can cause only mechanical stress in the matter of the rotating solid body.

Differences between solidofugal and gravifugal force

In a case of rotation of solid body value of solidofugal force is always equal to that of solidopetal, and proportional to the velocity of rotation. Newton 3. In a case of rotation of, eg.: artificial statelite, in which gravity acts as centripetal (i. e gravipetal) force, gravifugal force also is equal to that of gravipetal, but the both forces are inversely proportional to the value of satelites velocity. It is key factor enabling the real levitation. If we, for example, increase velocity of satelite, than – by very that act – we will not increase its gravifugal force, than rather radius, R of its movement (orbiting).

Bearing in mind that, increasing the radius of orbiting, we are exponentially, (per R2) decreasing value of gravipetal force, make us able to understand why higher orbits needs lower velocity of levitation, vs. (See text above)

Repulsive and detractive forces

If we observe this phenomenon from the point of interaction of the forces that enable levitation then we find:

that the apparent levitation is achieved by two opposing , repulsive force, for example: the same name electrical charge or magnetic poles of the same name.

In real levitation there is no repulsive force. The actual levitation occurs due to opposition detractive force to an attractive force, whether it’s about gravity, electricity or any other fundamental forces.

Detracting force, as allready has been said, is the way of manifestation of inertia of orbiting mass. (Discovered by Ch. Huygens – as a centrifugal force.). It always tend to drag off, abduct or detract the body from the point of application of an attracting force.

.Differences between the repulsive and detracting (detractive)  forces are very large and important. At repulsive forces, their size decreases with the square of the distance of those bodies which are deducted, as in Coullomb’s equation:

F = 1/4πɛ (Q1 x Q2)/r2

Detracting, gravifugal force, Fgf decreases linearly by the equation:

Fgf = (GMm /R2) – (mv2/R)

Therefore, for example, detractive, gravifugal force is significantly more economical in meeting certain human needs than any repulsive force, because they (repulsive forces) have a very short range.

 

Antigravitational levitation – yet not found. Up today exist just as wish. On a base of contemporary physics is not possible to understand internal structure or real base of that wish. Also it is not possible to understand or imagine how to create antigravitational force, field, or so called shield. No one attempt to create antigravitational device, field or shield, was demostrated as sucsesfull.

Meditative, volitive and paranormal or spiritual levitation – also seems to be only wish. Up today there is no any solid proof of such kind of personal levitation.

Levitation based in different magical or optical tricks is illusion which serves in art or for amusement of people.

Human needs to leave the surface of Earth, to wisit other celestial bodies, or to live in the space is possible to realize by using gravifugal force and gravifugal levitation. In other papers I have shown that it is possible to use this kind of levitation and gravifugal force in a quite different and muhc more economic manner than is this that was used in astronautical practice up to now. See article tallking about gravifugal flying craft:

Summary or conclusion

Entire matter of universe is in the same time in a state of real levitation or permanent weightless state and state of apparent levitation in itself and in regard to itself. E:g. because of orbiting the Sun, Earth with all things and people on its surface are in state of real levitation, weightless state in regard to Sun. But people and things on its surface are in same time in a state of apparent levitation in regard to Earth surface, its mass and center of gravity. Whole universe levitate in itself. Levitation is basic state of universe.

In this phenomenon, the problem is that we can not feel either one of the two types of levitation, but we can have knowledge about it. It is of essentially importance, because the truth lies in the knowledge and not in our senses or the sensors.

A similar problem was followed by the Copernican revolution. Since we are existing, our senses show us that the Sun and stars are revolving around the Earth. But Copernicus offered us a statement that it is an illusion resulting from the rotation of the Earth and it turned out that the truth lies in his claim that was derived precisely and exclusively from knowledge, because the rotation of the Earth in any way we can not feel i,e, perceived by our sensors.

Oglasi

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