# GRAVIFUGAL SPACE SHIP

Petar Bosnić Petrus

**GRAVIFUGAL SPACE SHIP**

Unfortunately the translation of this article from Croatian to English is not so good, but things I am talking about are very simple – Newtonian simplicity – because of it I believe you will easy understand this matter.

(*Does somebody can make good translation in English, Chinese or Russian?*)

Original text in Croatian language is here:

https://petarbosnicpetrus.wordpress.com/2017/03/10/gravifugalna-letjelica/

**Abstract**

This work, among the other things, shows that the circle have no only single (only one) geometric center, as is commonly thought, but an infinite number of them :*C _{1} C_{2} C_{3} C_{4}….* and they are all situated in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the circle or the plane of rotation, passing through point of center

*C*S

_{0. }**ee Figure 1**

Some of them, which are the geometric points of centers, are also physical points, or centers because they are points of application of centripetal force. E.g. center *C _{0 .}*

_{ }

**See Figure 1.**

Furthermore, this work shows and emphasizes that physical center of the circle or rotating ring may be situated outside of the plane of rotation. An example is the rotation of ring near the surface of the celestial body. **See Figure 2**

**Figure 2**

At such rotation, between the infinite number of geometrical centers, there are two physical centers. One, or the first, *C _{0}* is in the plane of rotation of the ring. It is the source (point of application) of the “ordinary” centripetal force. The other,

*C1*is situated in the center of the celestial body and is (point of application) of the gravipetal force – gravity, which performs or functions as a centripetal force.

In addition to common known centrifugal force, *F*_{cf}** **the result or consequence of ring rotation also is gravifugal force,

*F*,

_{gf}**Figure 2**. It is Newtonian reaction to the action of gravipetal force. Gravipetal force, as I just said, is in fact gravity functioning as centripetal force. Gravifugal force has the same course of action as gravipetal, but an opposite direction (Newton 3). This, gravifugal force,

*F*enables the ring to lift along the axis of its rotation and levitate.

_{gf}*In the case of rotation of ring arround the vertical axis, the current scientifical opinion overlooked the physical reality of extraplanar center of the ring C _{1. }Because of it_{.}also was overlooked the reality of the the gravifugal force, F_{gf } and possibiliy of lifting the ring along the axis of its rotation and endeed possibility of its levitation. That oppinion believed that force in direction of gravifugal force, F_{gf} is just a derivative, ^{ }of centrifugal force vector, F_{cf × }Cos. 90^{0} , which allways equals zero. *

*Additional facts which enables the ring o lift itself along the axis of its rotation and enables it to levitate , we will show below.*

**Technological and practical purpose of this paper**

The paper shows that it is possible to build a vessel, spaceship or flying craft which is able to neutralize gravity by gravifugal force.

One of the main functions of the gravifugal flying craft is to be a means of transport in atmospheric and space transportation (traffic).

Unlike missiles which can be used only once, gravifugal flying craft can be used hundreds, thousands or millions of times. Working life of gravifugal flying craft should be much longer than the lifetime of the most solid car, practically unlimited. A transport cost using it would be incomparable cheaper, negligible.

Going into space and return to Earth, using the gravifugal flying craft, would be risky, dangerous and complicated as much as getting up from the chair on which we sit and sitting back on it.

The greatest distance on the Earth, 20,000 km (half of the equator), gravifugal flying craft would overcome in less than 50 minutes, with fuel consumption that would be well below 1% of the energy costs of modern aircraft, which “dive” through the atmosphere and almost all the fuel consume to overcome air resistance. Gravifugal flying craft also can fly and levitate also in vacuum.

For raising, (elevation) this flying craft, will use electric energy from its battery. The energy would be spent to accelerate one broad ring which creates gravifugal force. To might go back the craft and to the land, or to land it on some another celestial body, should be necessary to slow down the ring. It would be slowed by transforming its kinetic energy into electricity and returned it to the electrical batteries. Thus, the power consumption for this trip would be practically nil, zero.

It is not contrary to the law of conservation of energy, that can be seems at first glance, but the most necessary arising from it.

If this flying craft is constantly hovering at a certain height, there would not be carried out any work, (it is well known to the science of physics), so the energy consumption of its levitating would be zero again, even if the levitating lasted one million years and if the weight of craft reached millions or billions of tons.

For this reason, the gravifugal flying craft would be suitable for building of levitating houses, towns, plantations and the whole islands – complete levitating civilization. It is maybe the most important way of using of this device.

This, leviating civilization will truly be mature, fully developed form of material civilization on Earth. There will not be built in stone, concrete and steel, but only of carbons – carbon fiber, graphene and carbon nano-tubes. Life in it will be much healthier, safer, more comfortable and more beautiful, less expensive, but life on the Earth’s surface.

This is not a fantasy but a real and very close future It is based on the strictest application of the laws of classical physics, primarily celestial mechanics.

If someone is interested in: how it is possible and how realistic such a civilization is, let them views:

https://petarbosnicpetrus.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/abc-of-levitation/?frame-nonce=bf1c039184

**Gravifugal force**

Gravifugal force is a manifestation of mass inertia in the case of rotation in which gravity acts as the centripetal force, the force that a body turns on a circular path around the center of gravity of celestial body.

In such cases, in which gravity acts as a centripetal force, gravity is not called simply: gravity, but **gravipetal force, ***F _{gp. }*

The mass of the orbiting body resists to the change of direction of movement, and manifest’s itself as a force (gravifugal) force, *F*_{gf}**_{ }**, which acts in the same direction as the gravipetal, but in the opposite direction. (Newton 3).

**important note**

In the previous, the above mentioned article, I showed that gravifugal force is not refusing, (repulsing), but distracting or detracting force, which detracts orbiting mass from the celestial body around which it orbits and therefore it can not bi called repulsive, but detractive (distractive) force. The fact that gravifugal force is detractive one, and not repulsive is a very great fortune for the man, very lucky circumstance, because the size of detractive force does not decrease with the square of the distance, with *R ^{2}*, from the center or the surface of a celestial body, as repulsion force, does, than rather linear, with

*R*. Due to this their characteristics, gravifugal force is very economical – “for the square” more economical than hypothetical, i.e. the mythical antigravity.

Well, just so.

Let us return to the main topics.

If the speed of orbiting celestial body is enough large then the vector sum of gravifugal and gravipetal force equals to zero it comes in a state of real levitation, ie. permanent weightlessness state. For example, Spaceships and astronauts orbiting the Earth at a speed of cca 7,9 km/sec. (Ie. The first cosmic speed).

Earth is in a state of real levitation in regard to the Sun, because it is orbiting around Sun, at a speed of 30 km/sec. In this case vector sum **gravipetal** and **gravifugal** forces is also reduced to zero. The same happens with large celestial objects or formations, but also in smaller ones. The electron orbiting an atomic nucleus is in a state of real levitation in relation to it, because vector sum of **electropetal** and **electrofugal** forces, that occur here, also are reduced to zero.

Because the whole matter of the universe is in a state of rotation, at speed that balances all the centripetal and centrifugal forces, and reducing them to zero, the entire material universe levitates in itself. The actual levitation, i.e. permanent weightless state is basic or natural state of matter. If the speed of rotation would be the smaller, the universe would collapse into itself, and if it would be higher, it would blew like a too fast rotating disk.

Gravifugal force was discovered and established since Newton – Hygens times. They gave a formula for its calculation. Today it is the basis, “the alpha and omega”, of whole Astronautics.

It is the formula:

*F _{gf} = mv^{2}/R*

Size of gravipetal force *F _{gp} * can be calculated from the equation:

*F*_{gp }* = GMm/R ^{2} – mv^{2}/R, *whence it follows that the size of gravipetal acceleration,

*g*

_{gp}*g _{gp }= (GM – v^{2})/ R*

**important note**

At the rotation of solid body which is based in strength, solidity or **solidopetal** force – which belong among **pseudoforces,** centripetal and centrifugal acceleration increases by increasing speed. But at the rotation based in **gravipetal** force (bearing in the mind that gravity which belongs among **fundamental** forces, and acts as a centripetal force.), it is happening quite the opposite; – inverselly prfoportional – gravipetal and gravifugal acceleration decrease with the increased speed and at a speed of levitation or satelization fall to zero. By increassing velocity, it is not acceleration that increases than rarher radius *R,* or height of gravifugal flying craft. Well, just so much in this note.

Let us to the main stream of our topics.

Speed, needed to achieve state of satelization or real levitation, continuous (permanent) weightlessness state, at a given radius,* R* is calculated from the equation:

*GMm/R ^{2} = mv^{2}/R*, from which follows that the speed of satelization, vs. or. the same: speed levitation,

*v*

_{l}*v _{l} = √*

*GM/R*

In the above equations *G* is the gravitational constant, *M* is the mass of a celestial body, *m* is the mass of small orbiting bodies. *R* is the distance of a small orbiting bodies or mass, m from the center of gravity of celestial body.

The lowest Earth’s orbit speed of levitation is slightly less than 8 km / sec. (7.9 km / sec.) And decreases with increasing height, ie. Radius *R.*

The basis of levitating houses and levitating civilization will be gravifugal force, but it will be obtained in a specific way – by rotation of a large fast ring in which one physical center of rotation lies in the plane of rotation of ring and the other far beyond, i.e. “Below” the plane of rotation, at the center of gravity of a celestial body. (**See figure 2**) This will be discussed further down, in the main part of this article. Gravifugal force that is creating by this ring will carry the construction of the aircraft and its cargo, which will not rotate.

In the brain of the reasonable reader, by itself, should arise the question: If the equation to calculate the size gravifugal forces and the manner of its reaching was known for centuries, why we use such a dangerous, expensive and uneconomic missiles?

Why we have not built a gravifugal flying craft ????

There are a number of reasons.

As the first, but not the most important fact was lack of materials of enough strentgh. Enough strenght materials to produce a key element of this aircraft – ring capable to avoid simple gyroscopical phenomena and to create enough large gravifugal force was discovered and created recently. Those are nano-tubes and graphene. Only if the ring is made in these materials, can achieve high speeds that are generating enough large gravifugal force. Those are linear velocities of the ring mass larger than 8 km / sec. The angular velocity of rotation of the ring have not any importance.

High-strengtht materials (solidity), are needed because the “ordinary centrifugal force”, *F*_{cf}**_{ }** – which I call also solidofugal, force actioning in the plane of rotation of the ring and attempts to terminate it – is very large. The largest is in the level of Earth’s surface. There is about 6,367,000 times greater than gravifugal. To overcome this force and prevent the breaking of the ring, now it is possible only if the ring is made in graphene and nano-tubes. Fortunately, the size ratio of the centrifugal or solidofugal force vs gravifugal decreases with increasing altitude (height) of gravifugal flying craft.

Another reason is of crucial importance. It is the lack or neglect certain, scientific knowledge relating to the rotation into gravitational field.

Here’s what it’s about. At the first several known things.

Centrifugal forces (which are a manifestation of mass inertia) are arising in cases in which a mass is moving in circular trajectory around a given point (the center), which is the point of application of centripetal forces, which attracts the mass of the rotating body, and turns it on a circular path. Centrifugal force, whether it be: solidofugal, gravifugal, elektrofugal or some another, are always Newtonian reaction of the mass to effect of some centripetal force and always have the same course of action as centripetal, but the opposite direction. See Figure 1.

* F _{cf }is symbol of centrifugal force (solidofugal).*

But before we jump into presentation, we define a circle and sphere

**Circle** is a geometric figure in which all its points are at equidistant from the given point, the center, eg., center *C _{0.}*. See Figure 1 and Figure 2

*.*

**Sphere** – geometric body at which every point of its surface is at equidistant from its center. **See Figure 2** *.*

Figure 1 shows essentially important, but “unknown” thing:

that every circle has not only one, but an infinite number of geometric centers *C _{0}, C_{1}, C_{2}, C_{3}*…… etc., and that all these centers are situated on a line that is perpendicular to the plane of the circle and is passing through the point of center

*C*From any point on the circle (e.g., from point A) to the axis of rotation, can be pulled infinitely many different sizes of radius:

_{0.}*r*, etc. ….

_{0}, r_{1}, r_{2}, r_{3}If it is a rotation of solid discoid body, shallow cylinder, or a ring (**See Figure 1)**, therefore, from all of the infinite numbers of centers, privileged and important is only center *C _{0}*., because it is source, ie. the origin or point of application centripetal, or solidofugal force,

*F*. Centre

_{cf}*C*therefore, it is not only geometrical, but also a physical center. Of all the possible radius, only radius

_{0,.}*r*is perpendicular to the axis of rotation and, therefore, is the shortest route, along which is acting radiusvektor of centripetal and centrifugal :

_{0}*F*and

_{cp}*F*or solidopetal and solidofugal force as also I call it – symbols:

_{cf}*F*and

_{sp}*F*.

_{sf}But let’s move on.

At the rotation of the solid body , in the gravitational field, (**figure 2**), e.g. rotation of a ring in vicinity of celestial body, previous scientists overlooked that the path of this ring mass – **if the axis of rotation is coaxial with the direction of action of gravity and passes through the center of gravity of the celestial body, C_{1} (Figure 2)** – that is, therefore, that the path of ring mass is always and necessarily also curved towards center of the celestial body,

**, or point of application of gravity, ie. gravipetal force (gravity acting as a centripetal force), and that, when it rotates, in addition of those known centrifugal i.e. solidofugal force,**

*C*_{1}*F*, the most necessary is developing also “unknown” gravifugal force,

_{cf}*F*

_{gf }**See Figure 2.**

**Figure 2**

In the case shown in **Figure 2**, which shows a circle, or a rotating ring in vicinity of large celestial body, also shows that the circle or rotating ring has infinitely many centers, *C _{0}, C_{1}, C_{2}, C_{3}*…… and an infinite number of radius,

*r*,….. but privileged, real or physical centers are only

_{0}, r_{1}, r_{2}, r_{3}*C*and

_{0}*C*and, among the radiuses:

_{1. }*r*and

_{0},*r*

_{1.}Center *C _{0}* is privileged because the point of application of centripetal or solidopetal force that trajectory ring mass turns to the point of center

*C*Center

_{0. }*C*is privileged because it is the source or point of application of gravipetal force

_{1}*F*, which is acting along the radiusvector

_{gp}*r*and that the trajectory of the ring mass turns to the point of center,

_{1}*C*and from whose action occurs reactive (centrifugal i.e. more precize, gravifugal force,

_{1}*F*. If the center

_{gf}*C*would not be point of application of gravipetal force, it, in no way may be able to cause gravipetal and gravifugal force and would be only one of an infinite number of unimportant geometric centers outside the plane of rotation of the ring, plate or disc.

_{1}**important note**

This phenomenon – the rotation of a ring at the surface or in the vicinity of a celestial body – should not be understood as planimetric, but as stereometric phenomenon. With such rotation – rotation in the gravitational field – a ring, in addition to an infinite number of geometric centers, has – as we have said – also two physical center *C _{0 }*and

*C*. one of which,

_{1}*C*is the physical center in the plane of rotation of the ring, and the other,

_{0}*C*is out, or far beyond the plane of rotation of the ring, in the center of the sphere of celestial body. So much for this phenomenon.

_{1}We return to the mainstream of exposure.

The realization of this fact and the consciousness it is crucial for the development of future technologies of transport and development of material civilization in general, because it will be based on it. Mature form of development of material civilization will be the aforementioned levitating civilization.

In addition to the curvature toward to the axis of ring’s rotation i.e point *C _{0}* which we can see immediately, and in addition of explanation by which we can see that

*the trajectory of the mass of the rotating body or some kind of ring, in the case of*

_{ }**Figure 2**, is also most necessary curved toward the center of the celestial bodie i.e. point

*C*, we can offer still one explanation.

_{1.}Curvature toward center *C _{1}* can be understood from the following:

Let us suppose that on the surface of some quite large correct, smooth sphere we draw a small circle. Let’s say that this small circle is image of the every point of the path of the ring mass. The curvature of the small circle toward its own, coplanar center *C _{0}* we will see immediately. But curvature of the same small circle toward the center of the sphere,

*C*her “spherical bulge and” general “spherical excess,” we will not be able to see it. But if we think logically, we will realize that this curvature is something necessary because each point on a smooth surface of sphere is equidistant from its center, and that is impossible, on the surface of sphere, to draw a line that would not be curved toward its center. Radiusvektor of curvature towards the center of sphere

_{1,}*C*even at the smallest circle that can be drawn on the Earth’s surface is completely equal to the radiusvector of curvature of the Earth’s equator. See

_{1 , }**Figure 3.**

Figure 3

**Figure 3**, 1, sferical surface os celestial body; 2, center of celestial body; 3. gravifugal force,; 4, movement along curved surface; 5, imaginary straght lines connecting center of celestial body with sphere of stationary stars, 6 sphere of stationary stars.

*On the surface of sphere it is impossible to draw a line which is not curved toward the center of the sphere. Gravifugal force, 3, does not arise from that curvature* itself,* but only from movement of some mass, along the curved (spherical) surface, 4, intersects the imaginary straight line, 5, connecting the center of the celestial bodies and points of the sphere of fixed stars, “orbis coelestis” or “absolute space”,* 6.

*Such movement is real, absolute movement, and if it is allways at equidistant from a center of celestial body, 2, i.e. if it is curved toward it, necessarily causes gravifugal force, 3*Stil one explanation. **See Figure 4.** The ring which rotates in vicinity of the Earth’s surface, and whose axis of rotation is coaxial with the direction of gravity action, at the same time, has two essential curvature of its mass: one perpendiculary toward to its axis of rotation (center *C _{0}*), and other towards the center of gravity of Earth (

*C*). Imagination can not create such vision, but the mind must be able to clearly comprehend this phenomena.

_{1}**Figure 4** is used for the illustration of these things.

**Figure 4** At the ring rotating in vicinity of the Earth’s surface, it seems that the trajectory of its own mass is tangential in relation to surface of celestial body and in relation to its center of gravity. But it is just our illusion. Each point on the ring, in every moment , and every bit of its mass, is always at the same distance, from the center of the Earth, which means that it is curved toward center of Eart. Rotating particle of the ring mass describes the mantle of a cone, which top is in the center of the Earth (*C _{1}*) and the base circle of the ring itself. Only when we develop the mantle of this cone, we can clearly see that the trajectory of the mass of the ring is not flat nor tangential, in regard to celestial body, than rather circular, ie, curved towards the top (center of the Earth (

*C*).

_{1}Radius of curvature of the mass of the ring toward its axis of rotation or center *C _{0}* is very small, but its curvature is very large and easy to see. By contrast, radius of curvature toward the center of the Earth (

*C*) is very large (approximately 6,367,657meters), the curvature is very small, almost imperceptible.

_{1}Because of action of forces from the points *C _{0}* and

*C*i. e. because of solidopetal and gravipetal forces, ring mass reacts (Newton 3) by the centrifugal (solidofugal),

_{1}*F*and “unknown” gravifugal force

_{sf}*F*

_{gf}Size of the first calculated by the equation:

*F _{cf} *or

*F*

_{sf }

*= mv*

^{2}/r,Equation to calculate gravifugal force, *F _{gf :}*

*F _{gf }= mv^{2} /R*

“Ordinary centrifugal force”, *F _{cf} *or Solidopetal,

*F*has no any influens to the direction and value of gravifugal force,

_{sf}*F*

_{gf Fcf}Radius of the ring, *r* can be amount to a few meters or a few tens of meters, also can be even less than one meter. In contrast, the minimum length of the radius of the Earth, *R* at the Earth’s surface is approximately 6,360,000 meters and therefore useful gravifugal force, *F _{gf }*is 6.36 million times smaller than the common known centrifugal or solidofugal force,

*F*

_{sf}

Another thing. We all know that the Earth rotates arround its axis, so it is necessary that produces or creates gravifugal force. It has been detected long time ago and precisely measured by gravimeters at all geographical latitudes from 0^{0} do 90^{0 }geo. lat., but due to the already described overlook it was considered as a derivative of geocentrifugal or more precisely: geoaxifugal forces arising from the rotation of the Earth.

So much on solidofugal and gravifugal force.

We continue with a few words about gravifugal flying craft.

Already at the end of the last century it was possible to develop the craft of nano-tubes. The maximum theoretically possible speed of the ring made of existing tubes or nano-graphene is 8.75 km/sec.^{2}. This speed enables vertical acceleration ring of about 2 m/sec.^{2} . If the housing ring and construction craft were also made of nano-tubes or graphene would be able to bear the burden of about one fifth of the weight of the ring and raise the vertical acceleration of about 0.1 m/sec.^{2}

For comparison we point out that the largest rocket, the SATURN V at the start weight of three thousand and five hundred tons and can carry into orbit a weight of 200 tons. The ring of the three thousand tons, could carry into orbit a load of about 600 tons. And not only that. You could take that burden into orbit several times in one day, or at least a thousand times a year, with expenditure of inconceivably small amounts of electricity. This stems from the law of conservation of energy and the fact that gravity is a conservative force, ie. that keeps the work expended in its mastering and it is able to return it to the device that spent , which is inherently conservative and who again keep it and is capable again use it for the next elevation of the flying craft or some other useful work.

Of course this is not some kind of perpetualmotion machine. It is rather ordinary, but very economical device.

The place here is a scheme gravifugal flying craft. This one has no mechanical nor ion ring as some other types of this kind of gravifugal flying craft, but the quantum – ring made by the clean, monochromatic light. **Figure 5**

**Figure 5**. 1, toroidal tube with a mirror smooth inner walls; 2, light, i.e., a quantum ring; 3, light sources; 4, transparent photoelectric elements; 5 device for creating an electric field; 6, spacecraft structure of nano-tubes; 7, passage which connects the different room units; 8 useful space; 9 electric batteries.

The gravifugal flying craft fitted with quantum ring functions in following way: the electricity from the battery, 9 through the light source, 3 is converted into light, 2 and fills the toroidal tube spacecraft and moves simultaneously in clockwise and reverse. Since the wall of tube are smooth like mirror, the light must circulate indefinitely, without the possibility to disappear. When sufficient “amount” of light was inserted in the tube, the spacecraft begins to lift. It is lowered so as to reduce the light quantity in the tube, and this in turn performed so that the transparent photoelectric elements 4 penetrate into the tube body. Going through them, the light is again converted into electricity and back to the battery, 9.

The possibility of using the light ring is based on Einstein’s discovery that light changes the direction of its movement when passing close to strong gravitational fields – that turns toward the center of the celestial body just like a mass. Here Einstein’s hypothesis measurements proved by lord Edington in 1919 when it was found that the Sun’s gravity actually bends the light beam.

Forr this matter is the same whether the light corpuscles, photon, a quantum of energy, wave or information. The important thing is that it responds to the gravitational field as well as the masses.

On some other, interesting aspects of this phenomenon on which were the words you read on:

https://petarbosnicpetrus.wordpress.com/2014/06/06/abc-of-levitation/?frame-nonce=59b5fee084

At the first step I recommend the test experiment with carbonfibre ring 30 – 40 cm in diameter – **fig. 6** and average velocity of its mass cca 500m/sec. I recommend the ring without firm axis, but only magnetic bearing (to avoid vigrations). Propulsion: 3 phase electric power with changable freqency and asinhronous rotation magnetic field. In accordance with equation.

*a _{gf }= v^{2} /R* , by average velocity of the ring mass of 500m/sec. it can achieve vertical, gravifugal acceleration,

*a*

_{gf}cca 0, 392 m/sec

^{2}

**Fig. 6**

**Figure 6. **1 is mass of the ring made by carbon fiber or nano-tubes; 2 are magnetes of permanent magnet bearing (ring or rotor); 3 magnetes of permanent magnet bearing of casing or stator; 4 aluminum mass of the ring; 5 electromagnetes made by high frequency electromagnetic core and coils – powered by 3-phase electric current;6 mass of the casing made by carbon-fiber or polyester mass.

**Figure 6**

Coils are powered by 3-phase electric current. They are mounted in such a way as to allow creation of a revolving magnetic field. By linking the coils into the electric circuit an opposing magnetic field is also induced in the aluminum ring mass. Due to the effect of the magnetic field the ring begins to turn in the same direction as the magnetic field of the casing. The velocity of the ring is dependent on the velocity of rotation of the casing magnetic field, while the rotation velocity of the magnetic field is dependent on the frequency of the electric power (alternating).

Formula to calculate maximal relative velocity (velocity in regard to motionless neighborhood of the ring) is as follow.

*v =√D • 2F/ m*

In this formula:* v* is velocity of ring mass, *D* is diameter of the ring; *F* is tensile strenght of the material in which the ring is made; *m *is mass of the ring.

If the ring is made in graphene, maximal velocity is 9774m/sec.

That velocity enables gravifugal acceleration of cca 15m/sec^{2}

Minus gravitational acceleration, *g* of 9,81m/sec^{2}

is cca 5m/sec* ^{2 }*of gravifugal acceleration.